Textbook Notes (368,317)
Canada (161,798)
Commerce (1,695)
B A B A (9)
Chapter 3

2BA3-Chapter3.docx

6 Pages
53 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Commerce
Course
COMMERCE 1BA3
Professor
B A B A
Semester
Winter

Description
Commerce 2BA3 Chapter 3: Perception, Attribution, and Diversity Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment Components of Reception The Perceiver - Experience, needs, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target - Experience is one of the most important characteristics Perceptual defense: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions The Target - Involves interaction and addition - The perceiver does not or cannot always use all the information provided by the target The Situation - Adds information to the target Social Identity Theory - A theory that states that people from perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories Perceptual Process - Perception is selective - Perception is efficient, and this efficiency can both aid and hinder our perceptual accuracy - Perceptual constancy: the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time and across situations - Perceptual consistency: the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to forma homogenous picture of the target Basic Biases in Person Perception Primary and Recency Effects Primary Effect - The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions Recency Effect - The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions Central Traits: Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver Implicit personality theories: Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together Projection: The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others Stereotyping: The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them Specific aspects to stereotyping: - We distinguish some category of people - We assume that the individuals in this category have certain traits - We perceive that everyone in this category possesses these traits Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives Attribution: The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour Dispositional attributions: Explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect Situational attributions: Explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment 3 implicit questions guide our decisions as to whether we should attribute the behaviour to dispositional or situational causes: 1) Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently?  Consistency cues 2) Do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person?  Consensus cues 3) Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations or is it distinctive to one situation?  Distinctiveness cues Consistency cues: Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in behaviour over time Consensus cues: Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others Distinctiveness cues: Attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations Biases in Attribution 3 Biases in Attribution 1) Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations - Can lead to problems for managers of poorly performing employees 2) Actor-Observer Effect The propensity for actors and observer to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently 3) Self-Serving Bias The tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures - Can reflect intentional self-promotion or excuse making Person Perception and Workforce Diversity Workforce diversity: Differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation The Changing Workplace - Composition of the labour force is changing - Changing immigration patterns, the aging of baby boomers, and the increasing movement of women into paid employment make for a lot more variety Valuing Diversity Competitive advantages to valuing diversity: 1) Cost argument - As organizations become more diverse, the cost of a poor job in integrating workers will increase. Those who handle this well will thus create cost advantages over those who don’t. 2) Resource-Acquisition Argument - Companies develop reputations on favourability as prospective employers for women and ethnic minorities - Those will best reputations for managing diversity will win the competition for the best personnel 3) Marketing Argument - For multinational organizations, the insight and cultural sensitivity that members with roots in other countries bring to the marketing effort should improve these efforts in important ways - The same rationale applies to marketing to subpopulations within domestic operations 4)
More Less

Related notes for COMMERCE 1BA3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit