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Canada (161,798)
Commerce (1,695)
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Chapter 3


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Commerce 2BA3 Chapter 3: Perception, Attribution, and Diversity Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment Components of Reception The Perceiver - Experience, needs, and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target - Experience is one of the most important characteristics Perceptual defense: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions The Target - Involves interaction and addition - The perceiver does not or cannot always use all the information provided by the target The Situation - Adds information to the target Social Identity Theory - A theory that states that people from perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories Perceptual Process - Perception is selective - Perception is efficient, and this efficiency can both aid and hinder our perceptual accuracy - Perceptual constancy: the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time and across situations - Perceptual consistency: the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to forma homogenous picture of the target Basic Biases in Person Perception Primary and Recency Effects Primary Effect - The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions Recency Effect - The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions Central Traits: Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver Implicit personality theories: Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together Projection: The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others Stereotyping: The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them Specific aspects to stereotyping: - We distinguish some category of people - We assume that the individuals in this category have certain traits - We perceive that everyone in this category possesses these traits Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives Attribution: The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour Dispositional attributions: Explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect Situational attributions: Explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment 3 implicit questions guide our decisions as to whether we should attribute the behaviour to dispositional or situational causes: 1) Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently?  Consistency cues 2) Do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person?  Consensus cues 3) Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations or is it distinctive to one situation?  Distinctiveness cues Consistency cues: Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in behaviour over time Consensus cues: Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others Distinctiveness cues: Attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations Biases in Attribution 3 Biases in Attribution 1) Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations - Can lead to problems for managers of poorly performing employees 2) Actor-Observer Effect The propensity for actors and observer to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently 3) Self-Serving Bias The tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures - Can reflect intentional self-promotion or excuse making Person Perception and Workforce Diversity Workforce diversity: Differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation The Changing Workplace - Composition of the labour force is changing - Changing immigration patterns, the aging of baby boomers, and the increasing movement of women into paid employment make for a lot more variety Valuing Diversity Competitive advantages to valuing diversity: 1) Cost argument - As organizations become more diverse, the cost of a poor job in integrating workers will increase. Those who handle this well will thus create cost advantages over those who don’t. 2) Resource-Acquisition Argument - Companies develop reputations on favourability as prospective employers for women and ethnic minorities - Those will best reputations for managing diversity will win the competition for the best personnel 3) Marketing Argument - For multinational organizations, the insight and cultural sensitivity that members with roots in other countries bring to the marketing effort should improve these efforts in important ways - The same rationale applies to marketing to subpopulations within domestic operations 4)
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