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Chapter 4


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McMaster University

Commerce 2BA3 Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour What are values? Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others - Preference aspect: values have to do with what we consider good and bad - Are motivational, since they signal the attractive aspects that we try to avoid or change - They signal how we believe we should or not should behave Broad tendency: values are very general and that they do not predict behaviour in specific situations very well - Hold them structured around factors such as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare Generational Differences in Values - Traditionalists - Baby Bookers - Generation X - Millennials (Generation Y) - These generations are of course demarcated by being of different ages, but they are also distinguished by having grown up rather different socialization experiences - Exhibit 4.1 Pg. 113 (Four generations in today’s workplace) Cultural Differences in Values Work Centrality - Work is valued different among cultures Hofstede’s Study - Dutch Scientist questioned over 116 000 IBM employees located in 40 countries about their work related values Power distance: The extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power Uncertainty avoidance: The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations Masculinity/Femininity Individualism vs. collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clam Long-term/short-term orientation - Long-term stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences - Short-term Stress personal steadiness and stability, face saving, and social niceties - Importing OB Theories - Exporting OB Theories - Appreciating Global Customers - Developing Global Employees What are Attitudes? Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people - Attitudes involve evaluations directed toward specific targets - Attitudes are tendencies to respond to the target of the attitude - Attitudes often influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person, or group Attitude Behaviour - Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel - Attitudes are to always consistent with behaviour, and that attitudes provide useful information over and above the actions that we can observe - Are the product of a related belief and value BELIEF + VALUE  Attitude  Behaviour What is Job Satisfaction? Job Satisfaction: a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs 1) Facet Satisfaction - The tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job 2) Overall Satisfaction - An overall or summary indicator of a person’s attitude toward his or her job that cuts across the various facets What determines Job Satisfaction? Discrepancy - Beliefs and values cause differences in job satisfaction even when jobs are identical - Even if individuals perceive their jobs as equivalent, they might differ in what they want from the jobs Discrepancy theory: A theory that job satisfaction stems form the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained Fairness - Issues of fairness affect both what people want from their jobs and how they react to the inevitable discrepancies of organizational life - 3 Basic kinds 1) Distributive Fairness - Fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs - There are practical limitations Equity Theory: A theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison Of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group - Has an important implication for job satisfaction My outcomes/my inputs = other’s outcomes/other’s inputs Inputs: Anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes Eg. Education, training, seniority hard work, and high-quality work Outcomes: Factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for their inputs Eg. Pay, career opportunities, supervision, the nature of the work, and so on - The equitable distribution of work outcomes contributes to job satisfaction by providing for feelings of distributive fairness - In more collective cultures, equality of outcomes might produce more feelings of distributive fairness - In more feminine cultures, allocating outcomes according to need (rather than performance) might provide for distributive fairness 2) Procedural Fairness - Fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable - It decides how outcomes are decided and allocated - Particularly relevant to outcomes such as performance evaluations, pay raises, promotions, layoffs, and work assignments - In allocating such outcomes, the following factors contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness The allocator: - Follows consistent procedures over time and across people - Uses accurate information and appears unbiased - Allows two-way communication during the allocation process - Welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation - Especially likely to provoke dissatisfaction when people also see distributive fairness as being low 3) Interactional Fairness - Fairness that occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome - It extends beyond the actual procedures used to the interpersonal treatment received when learning about the outcome Disposition - Underlying the dispositional; view of job satisfaction is the idea that some people are predisposed by virtue of their personalities to be more or less satisfied despite changes in discrepancy or fairness - People who are extraverted and conscientious tend to be more satisfied with their jobs, while those high in neuroticism are less satisfied - People wh
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