Human Resources – Chapter 6: Training and Strategic Development of People
The Relationship Among Training, Development and Careers
Training and Development
Training – a planned effort to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge, skills and
behavior by employees.
If training is to offer a competitive advantage, it should be used in a broader way, as a
mechanism for creating and sharing knowledge. It should create intellectual capital, which
includes basic skills, advanced skills and an understanding of the customer or manufacturing
system and self-motivated creativity.
Development – The acquisition of knowledge, skills and behaviors that improve an employee’s
ability to meet changes in job requirements and in client and customer demands.
This includes formal education, job experiences, relationships and assessment of personality and
abilities that help employees prepare for the future.
Because it is future oriented, it involves learning that is not necessarily related to the employee’s
Focus Current Future
Use of work experience Low High
Goal Prep for current job Prep for changes in current job
Participation Required Voluntary
High-Leverage Training Strategy: ASystematicApproach
Estimated 85% of jobs in NAand Europe require extensive use of knowledge.
High –leverage training – Training practice that links training to strategic business goals, has
top management support, relies on an instructional design model and is benchmarked to
programs in other organizations.
High-leverage training practices also help create working conditions that encourage continuous
Continuous learning –Alearning system that requires employees to understand the entire work
process and expects them to acquire new skills, apply them on the job and share what they have
learned with other employees.
Designing Effective TrainingActivities
Training design process refers to a systematic approach for developing raining programs.
Instructional System Design and theADDIE model are 2 specific types of training design
processes. The following are the 6 steps of the training design process.
1) Needs Assessment
Needs assessment is the process used to determine if training is necessary.
Involves organizational, person and task analysis. Organizational analysis is the process for
determining the business appropriateness of training. Person analysis is the process for
determining whether employees need training, who needs training and whether employees are
ready for training. Task analysis is the process of identifying the tasks, knowledge, skills and
behaviors that need to be emphasized in training. Person and task analysis are often conducted at
the same time. 2) Ensuring Employees’Readiness for Training
Readiness for training refers to whether employees have the personal characteristics necessary to
learn program content and apply it and if the work environment will facilitate learning and not
interfere with performance.
Managers play an important role in training. Motivation to learn is the desire of the trainee to
learn the content of a training program.
Self-efficacy – the employees’belief that they can successfully learn the content of a training
3) Creating a Learning Environment
Learning permanently changes behavior. How employees learn best: they need to know why they
should learn, training programs need to have meaningful content, training should provide
opportunities for practice and feedback, trainees need to observe experience and interact with
others, training should include good program coordination and administration and trainees need
to commit training content to memory.
4) Ensuring Transfer of Training
Transfer of training – the use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training on the job.
Learning is influenced by the learning environment and employees’readiness for training.
Climate for transfer – trainees’perceptions of characteristics of the work environment (social
support and situational constraints) that can either facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or
Opportunity to perform – trainees are provided with or actively seek experience using newly
learned knowledge, skills or behavior.
Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) – computer applications that can provide
skills training, information access and expert advice.
5) Selecting Training Methods
Instructor led classroom training is still the most frequent.
Presentation methods – training methods in which trainees are passive recipients of
a) Instructor-led classroom instruction – one of the least expensive and time consuming
b) Audiovisual techniques – Includes overheads, slides and video. Been used for improving
communications skills, interviewing skills and customer service skills.
c) Mobile technologies: iPods and PDAs.
Hands-on methods – training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in
learning. Include on-the-job training, simulations, business games and case studies, behavior
modeling, interactive video and e-learning.
a) On-the-job training (OJT) – new or inexperienced employees learning through
observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior. It
takes various forms, including self-directed learning programs and apprenticeships. It
needs less investment in time or money. It must be structured.
Self-directed learning – a program in which employees take responsibility for all aspects
Apprenticeship – a work-study training method with both on-the-job and classroom
training. It is provincially regulated. b) Simulations – a training method that represents a real-life situation, allowing trainees to
see the outcomes of their decisions in an artificial environment. Used to teach production
and process skills, management and interpersonal skills.
Virtual reality – computer-based technology that provides trainees with a three-
dimensional learning experience. Trainees operate in a simulated environment that
responds to their behaviors and reactions.
c) Business Games and Case Studies – Trainees study and discuss and business games in
which trainees must gather info, analyze it and make decisions used primarily for
management skill development. Most documentation on learning from games in
d) Behavior Modeling – One of the most effective techniques for teaching interpersonal
skills. Each training session, usually 4 hours, focuses on one interpersonal skill.
e) Interactive Video – combines the advantages of video and computer based instruction.
f) E-learning – instruction and delivery of training by computers through the Internet or
company intranet. Includes web-based training, distance learning, virtual classrooms, and
use of CD-ROMS and DCDs. Can include task support, simulation training, distance
learning and learning portals.
It involves electronic networks, it is delivered via computers with Internet technology and
it focuses on learning solutions that go beyond traditional training to include electronic
links to info and tools that improve performance.
g) Blended Learning – combines online learning, face-to-face instruction and other methods.
h) Learning management system – technology platform that automates the administration,
development and delivery of a company’s training program.Allows people the ability to
manage, deliver and track learning activities. They can help reduce travel ad other costs,
reduce time for program completion, increase employees’accessibility and provide
administrative capabilities to track completion.
Group or Team Building Methods – Training techniques that help trainees share ideas and
experiences, build group identity, understand the dynamics of interpersonal relationships and get
to know their own strengths and weaknesses and those of their co-workers. Improve team or
group skills and effectiveness. Often involve experiential learning.
a) Adventure learning – learning focused on the development of teamwork and leadership
skills by using structured outdoor activities. Trainees often have to touch each other in the
exercises so it may increase the company’s risk for negligence claims.
b) Team Training – coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to
achieve a common goal.
c) Action learning – teams work on an actual business problem, commit to an action plan
and are accountable for carrying out the plan. 6-30 people.
Six sigma and black belt training programs involve principles of action learning. Six
sigma training is an action training program that provides empl