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Chapter 4

COMMERCE 2BC3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Offshoring


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMMERCE 2BC3
Professor
Weisner
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4 Notes
Work-flow analysis and organization structure
- work-flow: process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a
product or service, prior to allocating and assigning these tasks to a particular job
category or person
- organization structure: relatively stable and formal network of vertical and
horizontal interconnections among jobs that constitute the organization
Work processes
- activities that members of a work unit engage in to produce a given output
- things that need to get done to produce output and how those things are done
(individual skilled vs group dynamics)
Work inputs
- broken down into raw inputs, equipment, and HR needed to perform the task
- raw inputs: consist of the materials that will be converted into the work unit’s
product
- equipment: technology and machinery that will be converted into the work unit’s
product
- Human resources: skills and abilities necessary to perform the tasks
Organization Structure
- provides cross-sectional overview of the static relationships between individuals
and units that create the outputs
-2 dimensions of organization structure:
ocentralization: degree to which decision making authority resides at the
top of the organizational chart
odepartmentalization: the degree to which work units are grouped based on
functional similarity or similarity of work flow
-functional structure: employs a functional departmentalization scheme with
relatively high levels of centralization (individual units in the structures are so
specialized that they have a weak understanding of overall org. mission)
-divisional structure: combines a divisional departmentalization scheme with
relatively low levels od centralization (units act separately, self-sufficient)
- functional structures are more appropriate in stable, predictable environments,
where demand for resources can be well anticipated and coordination
requirements between jobs can be refined and standardized over consistent
repetition of activity
- divisional structures are more appropriate in unstable, unpredictable environments
Structure and Nature of Jobs
- functional structure jobs need to be narrow and highly specialized
Job Analysis
- process of getting detailed information about jobs
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-job description: list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that a job entails (clerical
job requires to type on computer)
-job specification: list of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics
(KSAO’s) that an individual must have to perform the job
Job Analysis Methods
- Job analysis interview: highly accessible, qualitative approach
oConduced using job analysis questionnaire to provide consistency
- Observation and self-report: record what people are doing (watch them in their
job)
- National Occupational Classification: database that organizes work Canadians do
into many job titles and occupational descriptions
oEach occupation description given a 4 digit code
oIncludes general description of job, the kinds of workplaces where the
occupation is found, main duties of occupational group, employment
requirements
- Position Analysis Questionnaire: a quantitative technique that is also one of the
broadest and most well-researched instruments for analyzing jobs
oStandardized job analysis questionnaire containing work behaviours, work
conditions, and job characteristics
oOrganized into info inputs, mental processes, work output, relationship
with other people, job context, other characteristics
oRated on a scale
Dynamic Elements of Job Analysis
-job design: process of defining how work will be performed and the tasks that
will be required in a given job
-job redesign: refers to changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an
existing job
Mechanistic Approach: simple, meaningless jobs that reduce an organizations need for
and dependence on high-skilled individuals (if worker leaves a new one can be trained
very quickly)
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