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11 Apr 2012

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Commerce 2BC3
Chapter 6: Selection of Human Resources
Selection and Placement
Selection: Process of choosing individuals with qualifications needed to fill jobs in an organization
- Best perspective on selection and placement comes from 2 HR beliefs that clearly identify the importance
of an effective selection process:
1) Hire hard, manage easy
- The amount of time and effort spent selecting the right people for jobs may make managing them as
employees much less difficult because more problems will be eliminated
2) Good training will not make up for bad selection
- When the right people with the appropriate capabilities are not selected for jobs, employers have difficulty
later adequately training those individuals who are selected
Selection Responsibilities
- Between HR Specialists and operating managers
- Have to meet human rights requirements and employment standards has forced many organizations to
plan their selection efforts
- Initial screening of employees
- Are affected by the existence of a central employment office, which is part of the HR department
- The employment function in any organization may be concerned with some or all of the following activities:
1) Receiving applications
2) Interviewing applicants
3) Administering tests to applicants
4) Conducting background investigations
5) Arranging for physical examinations
6) Placing and assigning new employees
7) Coordinating follow-up of these employees
8) Conducting exit interviews with departing employees
9) Maintaining appropriate records and reports
- Fitting a person to the right job
- Should been seen as primarily a matching process that can affect many different employment outcomes
- Affects the amount and quality of the employee’s work, as well as the training and operating costs required
to prepare the individual for work life
- Employee morale can be an issue because good fit encourages individuals to be positive about what they
accomplish on the job
- Typically focus on an applicant’s KSAs, should also focus on the degree to which job candidates generally
match the situations experienced both on the job and in the company
Person/job fit: Match between individual KSAs and demands of the job or the needs/desires of an
individual and what is provided by the job
- People already in jobs can identify the most important KSAs for success, as a part of job analysis
Person-organization fit: The congruence between individuals and organizational factors
- Important from a values perspective, organizations try to link people’s values to the organizations principles
- Can also influence employees and customers’ beliefs about the organization
Criteria, Predictors, and Job Performance
- First, an employer defines successful employee performance; then, using that definition as a basis, the
employer determines the employee KSAs required to achieve that success
Selection Criterion: Characteristic that a person must have to do a job successfully
Predictors: Measurable or visible indicators of a selection criterion
- Can take many forms but they should only be used if they are valid
Reliability and Validity
Employment test: Any employment procedure used as the basis for making an employment related
Must consider the following:
The test measures that it claims to measure consistently or reliably
Test again, a similar score
The test measures what it claims to measure
The test is job-relevant
Using the test, more effective employment decisions can be made about individuals
- The degree to which a test has these qualities is indicated by 2 technical properties:
1) Reliability
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- Consistency of your measurement, or the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each
time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects
- For the test to be reliable, it should be the same score every time they take the test
- Can be measured by several statistical methodologies
Test-Retest: A group of people is tested twice, using the same tests, and two sets of scores obtained are
Alternate forms: The degree to which 2 versions of a test produce similar results
Internal consistency: Occurs when the degree to which all the questions in a set are measuring the same
Administered once, saves money, speeds up the selection process
- Reliability has to do with the consistency of predictors used in selection
2) Validity
- Extent to which a test actually measures what it says it measures. In selection, validity is the correlation
between a predictor and job performance
- Relates to inferences made from tests
- Must measure actual intelligence
- Must be validated for use in a specific company’s application
- 2 approaches: Content and criterion-related validity
- Are interrelated strategies
- Reliability is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity
Content Validity
- Validity measured by a logical, non-statistical method to identify the KSAs and other characteristics
necessary to perform a job
- Occurs when the tester is concerned with the type of behavior involved in the test performance
- Especially useful if the workforce is not large enough to allow other, more statistical approaches
- Begins with a comprehensive job analysis to identify what is done in the job and what KSAs used
- Managers, supervisors, and HR specialists must identify the most important KSAs needed for the job
- A test is devised to determine if individuals have the necessary KSAs
- A commonsense standard for validating staffing requirements and as more realistic than statistical
- Growing in use
Criterion-Related Validity
- Validity measured by a procedure that uses a test as the predictor of how well an individual will perform on
the job
- A test is the predictor and the measures for job performance are the criterion variables
- Job analysis determines, as accurately as possible, what KSAs and behaviours are needed for each task
in a job
Correlation Coefficient: Index number giving the relationship between a predictor and a criterion
- Always range from -1.0 to +1.0 with higher scores suggesting stronger relationships
- 2 approaches to criterion-related validity:
Concurrent Validity
- Measured when an employer tests current employees and correlates the scores with their performance
- At the same time
- Called concurrent because the job performance measures and the test scores are available at the same
- Drawback: Employees who have not performed satisfactorily on the job are probably no longer with the
firm and therefore cannot be tested, and extremely good employees may have been promoted or may have
left the organization for better jobs
- Any learning that has taken place in the job may influence test scores
Predictive Validity
- Measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance
- Success on the job is measured by suck factors as absenteeism, accidents, errors, and performance
A fairly large number of people (usually at least 30)
A time gap between the test and the performance (usually one year)
- Not useful in many situations
- Other types are more popular
The Selection Process
- Depend on organizational size, nature of the jobs to be filled, number of people to be selected, the use of
electronic technology, and other factors
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Legal Concerns in the Selection Process
- The selection tests must be valid, reliable, job-related, and do not discriminate against any applicant
- The goal must be about selecting the most qualified candidate for the position
- Has to be applied to all aspects of recruitment and selection measures, with the only exception being for
bona fide occupational requirements (BFORs)
Applicant Job Interest
- Submitted resumes, applied in person
- Now, Internet recruiting, online applications or submit resumes electronically
- Has an important PR dimension
- Job applicants perceptions of the organizations, and even of the products or services it offers, will be
influenced by how they are treated
Realistic Job Previews’
- Process through which a job applicant receives an accurate picture of a job
- They can better evaluate their own job expectations
- Hopes to prevent unrealistic expectations and ultimately employee dissatisfaction and turnover
- Tend to be effective
Pre-Employment Screening
- To determine if applicants meet and minimum qualifications of open jobs
- Some employers have all job applicants fill out an application first
Electronic Screening
- One type of screening uses computer software to scan for keywords in resumes or applications submitted
- Larger employers use types of text searching or artificial intelligence (AI) software to scan, score, and track
résumés or applications submitted electronically
- Sort by keywords, key skills, or experience
- Software systems are used most often when:
Volume of applicants is large
Quality of hires needs to be increased
Hiring cycles need to be shortened
The cost of hiring needs to be reduced
Firm needs to reach geographic areas not visited by recruiters
- Has had mixed reviews
Application Forms
- Are almost universally used and can take different formats
- Illegal questions: Marital status, information on spouse, height/weight, date of high school grad, number
and ages of dependants, contact in case of emerg, age, national/ethnic origin, sex, race or colour, religion,
disability, medical information, criminal record/convictions
- Record of the applicant’s desire to obtain a position
- Provided the interviewer with a profile of the applicant that can be used in the interview
- Basic employee record for applicants who are hired
- Can be used for research on the effectiveness of the selection process
Application Disclaimers and notices
- Need disclaimers and notices so that employers state appropriate legal protections
- Recommended disclosures and notices appearing on applications include:
Privacy Act
- Confirms to the applicant that the information collected is protected under the federal Provincial Freedom
of Information and Protection from Privacy Act or relevant provincial privacy acts, and in accordance with the
relevant Human Rights Act
Reference contacts
- Requests permission to contact previous employers listed by applicants as references
Employment testing
- Notifies applicants of required drug tests, pencil, and paper tests, physical exams, or other tests
Application Time Limit
- Indicates how long applications are active (typically six months) and that individuals must reactivate their
applications after that period
Information Falsification
- Conveys to an applicant signing the form that falsification of application information is grounds for
immediate termination for cause
Legality of the application form
- Notifies applicants if the form has been approved by the provincial Human Rights Commission
- Especially useful to smaller organizations that may not have the appropriate expertise in HR
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