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Chapter 7

COMMERCE 2KA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Local Area Network, Ipv6, Digital Subscriber Line


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMMERCE 2KA3
Professor
A L I R M O N T A Z E M I
Chapter
7

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Commerce 2KA3
Chapter 7: Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology
Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World
- Historically there have been two types of networks: telephone networks and
computer networks.
- Telephone networks enabled voice transmission around the world
- Computer networks were built to transmit data between computers in different
locations all across the world
- Due to deregulation of telecommunication networks and tech innovation the two
networks are now converging into a single digital network that is fater, more
portable, and less expensive.
- 90% of Canadians have access to high speed broadband internet
- To connect two or more computers together you need a network, the network has a
number of transmission components
- The major hardware/software used in a simple network include: a client computer,
a dedicated server computer, network interfaces, a connection medium, network
operating system software, and either a hub or a switch
- Each computer will have a network interface to link the computer to the network.
The connection medium can be telephone wires, coaxial cable, radio signal, wifi
Network Operating System (NOS): the system that routes and manages
communications on the network and coordinates network resources. It can reside on
every computer in the network or on a central server
Hubs: are very simple devices that connect network components, sending a packet of
data to all other connected devices
Switch: a devices that has more intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data
to a specified destination on the network
Router: is a communications processor used to rout packets of data through different
networks, ensuring that the data sent gets to the correct address
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Network switches and routers have software built into their hardware for directing the
movement of data on the network. Can create bottlenecks and makes the process of
configuring a network more time consuming
Software-defined networking (SDN): a networking approach in which many of these
control functions are managed by one central program, which can run on inexpensive
commodity servers that are separate from the network devices themselves. Ideal for
cloud computing
Corporate Network Infrastructure are more complex that the simple networks, they
consists of a large number of these small local area networks linked to other local area
networks and to firm wide corporate networks. A number of powerful servers support
a corporate website, a corporate Internet, and perhaps and extranet
Key Digital Networking Technologies
Client/Server Computing: a distributed computing model in which some of the
processing power is located within small, inexpensive client computers and resides
literally on desktops, laptops, or handheld devices. The powerful clients are linked to
one anther through a network that is controlled by a network server computer.
Client/server computing has been phased out by centralized mainframe computers but
remains present in workgroups, factory floors, and other non-centralized parts of
businesses
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Packet Switching: a method of slicing digital messages into parcels called packets,
sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available, and
then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destinations. Prior to packet
switching computers communicated with each other via dial up (using telephone wires)
TCP/IP and Connectivity
In a typical telecommunications network, diverse hardware and software components
need to work together to transmit information. Different components communicate
with each other only by adhering to a common set of rules
Protocol: a set of rules and procedures governing transmission of information between
two points in a network
Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP): a single common,
worldwide standard, developed in the 70s to help scientists transmit data among different
types if computers over long distances
TCP handles the movement of data between computers, it establishes connection,
sequences the transfer of packets, and acknowledges the packets sent
IP is responsible for the delivery of packets and includes disassembling and
reassembling of packets during transmission
The whole TCP/IP model can be explained in four layers
1. Application layer: enables client application programs to access other layers and
defines protocols that applications use. On of which being Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP), used to access web pages
2. Transport layer: responsible for providing the application layer with
communication and packets serves. Includes TCP
3. Internet layer: responsible for addressing, routing and packaging data packets
called IP diagrams
4. Network Interface layer: responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from
network mediums (any networking technology)
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