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Chapter 10

Commerce 2KA3 - Chapter 10 Summary

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Chapter 10 – Systems Development
Software that effectively meets employee needs will help an organization
become more productive and enhance decision making
Developing Software
Almost every large organization in the world relies on software, either to
drive its business operations or to make its products work.
As organizations’ reliance on software grows, so do the business-related
consequences of software successes and failures
Understanding the basics of software development methodologies will help
organizations avoid potential software development pitfalls and ensure that
software development efforts are successful
Software Development Methodologies
Today, systems are so large and complex that teams of architects, analysts,
developers, testers, and users must work together to create the millions of
lines of custom-written code that drive enterprises
Waterfall Methodology
Waterfall methodology: a sequential, activity-based process in which each
phase in the systems development life cycle is performed sequentially from
planning through implementation and maintenance
One of the oldest and has been around more than 30 years
Success rate is 1 in 10. On primary reason for such a low success rate is that
the waterfall methodology does not sufficiently consider the level of
uncertainty in new projects and the creativity required to complete software
development projects in several aspects
As people’s understanding of the business problems evolve, so must the
Rapid Application Development Methodology (RAD)

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Rapid application development (also called rapid prototyping) methodology
emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary
construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems
development process
Prototype: a smaller-scale representation or working model of the user’s
requirements or a proposed design for an information system
Extreme Programming Methodology
Extreme programming (XP) methodology: breaks a project into tiny phases,
and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is
The primary difference between the waterfall and XP methodologies is that
XP divides its phases into iterations with user feedback
XP is a significant departure from traditional software development
methodologies, and many organizations in different industries have
developed successful software using it
The XP methodology promotes quickly being able to respond to changing
requirements and technology
Agile Methodology
Agile methodology: a form of XP, aims for customer satisfaction through early
and continuous delivery of useful software components
Agile is similar to XP but with less focus on team coding and more on limiting
project scope
Slash the Budget: Small budgets force developers and users to focus on the
essentials. They also make it easier to kill a failing project
If It doesn’t work, kill it: Bring all key stakeholders together at the beginning
of a project and as it progresses bring them together again to evaluate the
oEliminate any software that is not meeting business expectations
Keep Requirements to a Minimum: Start each project with what the software
must absolutely do. Do not start with a list of everything the software should

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oKeeping requirements to a minimum also means that scope creep and
feature creep must be closely monitored
oScope creep: occurs when the scope of the project increases
oFeature Creep: occurs when developers add extra features that were
not part of the initial requirements
Test and Deliver Frequently: As often as once a week, and not less than once
a month, complete a part of the project or a piece of software. The part must
be working and it must be bug-free.
Assign Non-IT Executives to Software Projects
oHaving the business side involved full-time will bring project ownership
and a desire to succeed to all parties involved
Participatory Design
Participatory design (PD) methodology: promotes the active involvement of
users in the information systems development process
The traditional designer/user relationship is reversed: users are viewed as the
experts- the ones with the most knowledge about what they do and what
they need- and the designers as technical consultants or coaches
The PD approach is based on several tenets:
oThe design process makes a difference for participants
oImplementation of the results from the design process are likely
oIt is fun to participate
To encourage healthy cooperation between user and designer, PD advocates
oCreating opportunities for mutual learning between users and
traditional systems designers (e.g., each has knowledge that the other
can benefit from)
oUtilizing design tools that are familiar to users (e.g., using pens,
papers, flipcharts, instead of entity-relationship or data-flow diagrams)
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