Textbook Notes (367,844)
Canada (161,454)
Commerce (1,683)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

10 Pages
178 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Commerce
Course
COMMERCE 2KA3
Professor
Scott Paquette
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies IT Infrastructure  The shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm’s specific information system applications.  Includes investment in hardware, software, and services, such as consulting, education, and training.  Defining IT infrastructure: o Set of physical devices and software required to operate enterprise o Set of firm wide services including:  Computing platforms providing computing services  Telecommunications services  Data management services  Application software services  Physical facilities management services  IT management, standards, education, research and development services o “Service platform” perspective more accurate view of value of investments  The real value of a PC is more apparent with knowing who will use it and how it will be used Evolution of IT Infrastructure  Reviewing the evolution of corporate IT infrastructure can offer some insight into where we are headed.  Each of the following five stages represents a different configuration of computing power and infrastructure elements.  General-Purpose Mainframe o Highly centralized computing with networks of terminals o Provide time sharing, multi-tasking, virtual memory o The first airline reservation system appeared in 1959 o Most elements of the infrastructure provided by a single vendor o IBM dominates mainframe computing  Minicomputer o Produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1965 o Part of computing power shifted to terminals, making possible decentralized computing o Customized to the needs of individual departments or business units (without the need for time sharing on a single mainframe) o Far lower prices than IBM mainframes 1  Personal Computer o Introduction of IBM PC in 1981 marks the beginning of this era o IBM PC, the first to be widely adopted by U.S. businesses o The standard desktop PC, Wintel (Windows Operating System on an Intel microprocessor) o PCs made possible the use of personal desktop software tools such as word processors, spreadsheets, presentation software, etc. o PCs were stand-alone systems until operating system software in the 1990s made it possible to link them into networks  Client Server o Client is the user point of entry: Desktop or Laptop o Server is a powerful computer that typically processes and stores shared data, serves up Web pages, or manages network activities o Work is split between the two o The simplest client/server network consists of a client networked to a server: Two-tiered client/server architecture  Multitier (N-tier) client/server architecture o The work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers o Advantage: enables businesses to distribute computing work across a series of smaller, less expensive machines  Enterprise/Internet o Integrates disparate networks and applications throughout the firm into an enterprise- wide infrastructure o Uses networking standards such as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) o Information can flow freely across the organization and between the firm and other organizations 2  Cloud Computing o Firms and individuals obtain computing power and software applications over the Internet, rather than purchasing their own hardware and software o Requires high Internet bandwidth o Currently the fastest growing form of computing o Example: Google Apps (a suite of Internet based desktop software such as word processing, spreadsheets, etc.) Technology Drivers of Infrastructure Evolution  Micro processing Power o Moore’s law and micro processing power o Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Intel in 1965: “Since the first microprocessor was introduced in 1959, the number of transistors on a chip with the smallest manufacturing costs per transistor has doubled each year” o The law has evolved and has been interpreted as:  The power of microprocessors doubles every 18 months  Computing power doubles every 18 months  The price of computing falls by half every 18 months  Mass Digital Storage o The Law of Mass Digital Storage o PC hard drive capacity has increased over the years o Number of kilobytes that can be stored on magnetic disks for one dollar, doubling every 15 months  Network Economics o Metcalfe’s Law and Network Economics o The value of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network members o The changing social and business values demand more links among network members, thus requiring more processing power and storage capacity  Declining communications costs and the Internet o As the costs fall toward a small number, utilization of communication and computing facilities explode 3  Standards, Common Tools and Network Effects o Agreements among manufacturers and consumer acceptance of technology standards o Enables the connection of various members of a network o Technology standards unleash powerful economies of sale and result in lower prices o Manufacturers focus on the products built into a single standard o Some important standards in Computing  American Standard Code of Information Interchange (ASCII) (1958)  Enables various computers to exchange data  Used as the universal language linking input and output devices to computers  Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) (1959)  language for writing business-related programs  Unix (1969-1975)  A powerful multi-tasking, multi-user, portable operating system  Operates on a wide variety of computers from different manufacturers  Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (1974)  A suite of communications protocols and a common addressing scheme  Enables millions of computers to connect in one giant network  Ethernet (1973)  A network standard for connecting desktop computers  Enables client/server architecture  IBM/Microsoft/Intel Personal Computer (1981)  The Wintel Standard  World Wide Web (1989-1993)  Standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information as a web of electronic pages Infrastructure Components Computer Hardware: Microprocessor, the heart of any Computing device  Client machines (desktops, laptops, and PDAs): Primarily Intel or AMD processors  Server machines: Intel, AMD, Sun, IBM o Blade servers: Ultra-thin, Intended for a single dedicated application o Server Farms: A collection of servers  Mainframes systems used as giant servers for enterprise networks Operating System: tell computers what o do, when to do it, and how  Microsoft Windows dominates the market of client and server machine software  Unix or Linux widely used as server software o Scalable o Reliable o Less expensive 4 o Run on different processors o Linux available as open-source software Enterprise Software Applications: Integrate applications into seamless processes across the organization  Largest suppliers of enterprise software are o SAP o Oracle o PeopleSoft (acquired by Oracle) o Microsoft is aiming Small and Medium Enterprises  Switching from a vendor can be difficult and costly Data Management and Storage: provide easy access to data, provide meaningful information to the organization  Database software: Organizing and managing firm’s data so it can be efficiently used o IBM (DB2), Oracle, Microsoft (SQL Server), Sybase (Adaptive Server Enterprise), MySQL  Physical data storage: EMC Corp (large-scale systems), Seagate, Maxtor, Western Digital  Storage area networks (SANs): connect multiple storage devices on dedicated network Networking/Telecommunications: are merging into one  Leading network hardware providers are Cisco, Lucent, and Juniper  Software leaders are Microsoft, Linux, and Unix  Service vendors include Bell Canada, Primus, and regional carriers: Offer voice, data connectivity, internet access, etc.  Growth of wireless and Voice over IP (VoIP) Consulting and system integration services: to keep up with changes  Even large firms do not have resources for full range of support for new, complex infrastructure  Software in
More Less

Related notes for COMMERCE 2KA3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit