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Chapter 4&9

COMMERCE 2KA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4&9: Digital Millennium Copyright Act, P3P, E-Reader


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMMERCE 2KA3
Professor
A L I R M O N T A Z E M I
Chapter
4&9

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CHAPTER FOUR: SOCIAL, ETHICAL, AND LEGAL ISSUES IN
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Understanding Ethical and Social Issues Related to Systems
Have to decide for yourself what is proper legal and ethical conduct
Perpetrators of failed ethical and legal judgment use financial reporting info
systems to bury decisions from the public
Ethics: principles of right and wrong that individuals use to make choices to guide
behaviours
Info systems raise new ethical questions
IT will produce benefits for many and costs for others
Unleashes new concerns about:
oUse of customer information
oProtection of privacy
oProtection of intellectual property
A Model for Thinking about Ethical, Social, and Political Issues
Ethical social and political issues are closely linked
New IT causes new situations that are not covered by old rules
May take years to develop etiquette, expectations, social responsibility, politically
correct attitudes, approved rules
May be forced to act in legal grey area for a while
Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age
Information rights and obligations: what information rights individuals and
organizations possess
Property rights and obligations: how will traditional intellectual property rights be
protected in digital society
Accountability and control: who will be held accountable/liable for harm done to
individual and collective information
System quality: standards of data and system quality
Quality of life: what values should be preserved, what cultural practices are
supported
Key Technology Trends That Raise Ethical Issues
IT has:
oHeightened ethical concerns
oTaxed existing social arrangements
oMade laws obsolete
Four key technological trends responsible for ethical stresses:
Trend Impact
Computing power doubles - More organizations depend on computer systems for

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every 18 months critical operations
- Standards for ensuring accuracy/reliability of info
systems not universally enforced/accepted
Data storage costs rapidly
declining - Organizations can easily maintain detailed databases on
individuals
- Has made routine violation of individual privacy cheap
and effective
Data analysis advances Companies and government can find out highly detailed
personal info about individuals
Networking advances - Copying data from one location to another
- Accessing personal data from remote locations
Profiling: use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create
electronic summaries of info on individuals
Ex. DoubleClick tracks activities of visitors to create profile and sells to
companies to help them target Web ads better
Nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA):
oTakes info about people from different sources and correlates to find
hidden connections
oHelps identify criminals or terrorists
oGiven government more powerful profiling capabilities
Ethics in an Information Society
Basic Concepts: Responsibility, Accountability, and Liability
Responsibility: person accepts potential costs, duties and obligations for the
decisions they make
Accountability:
oMeans that mechanisms are in place to determine who took responsible
action, who is responsible
oFeature of systems and social institutions
Liability: body of laws is in place that permits individuals to recover damages
done to them by other actors, systems organizations
Due process:
oProcess in which laws are known and understood
oAbility to appeal to higher authorities
Responsibility for consequences of technology falls on institutions, organizations
and managers who choose to use technology
Candidate Ethical Principles
1. Golden Rule: do unto others as you would have them do unto you
2. Kant’s Categorical Imperative: if action is to right for everyone to take I, it is not
right for anyone
3. Decartes rule of change: if action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to
take at all
4. Utilitarian Principle: take action that achieves higher or greater value

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5. Risk Aversion Principle: take action that produces least harm or least potential
cost
6. Ethical “no free lunch” rule: assume that all tangible and intangible objects are
owned by someone else unless there is a specific declaration otherwise
Professional Codes of Conduct
Canadian Medical Association (CMA)
Canadian Bar Association (CBA)
Canadian Information Processing Society (CIPS)
Association of Computing Machinery (ACM)
Take responsibility for partial regulation of professions
Determine entrance qualifications and competence
The Moral Dimensions of Information Systems
Information Rights: Privacy and Freedom in the Internet Age
Privacy: claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or
interference from other individuals/organizations
IT make invasion of privacy cheap, profitable, and effective
PIPEDA (Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act)
establishes following principles:
oAccountability
oLimiting collection
oLimiting use
oDisclosure and retention
oEnsuring accuracy
oProviding adequate security
oMaking info management policies available
Internet Challenges Privacy:
oPossible to record what searches have been conducted, what pages have
been visited, online content a person has accessed, what items a person has
purchased over Web
oHelp businesses determine who is visiting sites and how to target offerings
Cookies:
oSmall text files deposited on a computer hard drive when user visits web
sites
oTracks when a person visits a particular site
oCan customize content on site to each visitor’s interests
Web beacons:
oTiny objects invisibly embedded in email messages and web pages
oDesigned to monitor behavior of user visiting a site
oTransmits IP address of computer, time page was viewed, how long, type
of browser
Spyware: secretly installs itself on computer
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