Textbook Notes (368,116)
Canada (161,659)
Commerce (1,690)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Marketing.docx

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Stephen Charko

Marketing – Chapter 4: Consumer Behavior Consumer behavior: Process through which buyers make purchase decisions. Cultural Influences Culture: Values, beliefs, preferences and tastes handed down from one generation to the next. The four core Canadian values are a unique balance between individualism and collectivism, an attitude of tolerance and acceptance, a heightened appreciation for a quality of life and an essentially peaceful predisposition. Microcultures: Smaller groups within a society that have their own distinct characteristics and modes of behavior. Reference Groups Reference groups: People or institutions whose opinions are valued and to whom a person looks for guidance in his or her own behavior, values and conduct such as family, friends or celebrities. Strong influence by a group on a member’s purchase requires two conditions:  The purchased product must be one that others can see and identify.  The purchased item must be conspicuous; it must stand out as something unusual, a brand or product that not everyone owns. Social Class Research has identified six classes within the social structures of both small and large NA cities: 1. The upper-lower 2. The lower-upper 3. The upper-middle 4. The lower-middle 5. The working class 6. Lower class Income is not always a primary determinant. Opinion Leaders Opinion leaders: Trendsetters who purchase new products before others in a group and then influence others in their purchases. Family Influences Marketers describe the role of each spouse using these four categories: 1. Autonomic role – seen when the partners independently make equal numbers of decisions. Personal case items would fall into the category of purchase decision each would make for him or himself. 2. Husband-dominant role – occurs when the husband usually makes certain purchase decisions. Buying a wood stove or generator is a typical example. 3. Wife-dominant role – has the wife making most of the buying decisions. Children’s clothing is a typical wife dominant purchase. 4. Syncratic role – refers to joint decisions. The purchase of a house follows a syncretic pattern. Personal Determinants of Consumer Behavior Needs and Motives Need: Imbalance between a consumer’s actual and desired states. Motives: Inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a need. Perceptions Perception: Meaning that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the five senses. A person’s perception of an object or event results from the interaction of two types of factors: 1. Stimulus factors – characteristics of the physical object such as size, color, weight and shape 2. Individual factors – unique characteristics of the individual factors – unique characteristics of the individual, including not only sensory processes but also experiences with similar inputs and basic motivations and expec
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