Marketing – Chapter 4: Consumer Behavior
Consumer behavior: Process through which buyers make purchase decisions.
Culture: Values, beliefs, preferences and tastes handed down from one generation to the
The four core Canadian values are a unique balance between individualism and
collectivism, an attitude of tolerance and acceptance, a heightened appreciation for a
quality of life and an essentially peaceful predisposition.
Microcultures: Smaller groups within a society that have their own distinct characteristics
and modes of behavior.
Reference groups: People or institutions whose opinions are valued and to whom a
person looks for guidance in his or her own behavior, values and conduct such as family,
friends or celebrities.
Strong influence by a group on a member’s purchase requires two conditions:
The purchased product must be one that others can see and identify.
The purchased item must be conspicuous; it must stand out as something unusual, a
brand or product that not everyone owns.
Research has identified six classes within the social structures of both small and large NA
1. The upper-lower
2. The lower-upper
3. The upper-middle
4. The lower-middle
5. The working class
6. Lower class
Income is not always a primary determinant.
Opinion leaders: Trendsetters who purchase new products before others in a group and
then influence others in their purchases.
Marketers describe the role of each spouse using these four categories:
1. Autonomic role – seen when the partners independently make equal numbers of
decisions. Personal case items would fall into the category of purchase decision each
would make for him or himself. 2. Husband-dominant role – occurs when the husband usually makes certain purchase
decisions. Buying a wood stove or generator is a typical example.
3. Wife-dominant role – has the wife making most of the buying decisions. Children’s
clothing is a typical wife dominant purchase.
4. Syncratic role – refers to joint decisions. The purchase of a house follows a syncretic
Personal Determinants of Consumer Behavior
Needs and Motives
Need: Imbalance between a consumer’s actual and desired states.
Motives: Inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a need.
Perception: Meaning that a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the
A person’s perception of an object or event results from the interaction of two types of
1. Stimulus factors – characteristics of the physical object such as size, color, weight
2. Individual factors – unique characteristics of the individual factors – unique
characteristics of the individual, including not only sensory processes but also
experiences with similar inputs and basic motivations and expec