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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Management Skills

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Carolyn Capretta

rd Management Skills 3S03 March 3 , 2014 Chapter 1: Personal Effectiveness Effective management starts from the inside. You must be able to manage yourself before you can manage others. Personal effectiveness (actionable knowledge and behaviours) is the foundation of great management. The most powerful and useful framework for thinking about personal improvement in management skills comes from the work ofAlbert Bandura: Social learning theory: learning of any new behavior is the result of 3 main factors: the person, the environment and the behavior; they all influence each other. Behaviour is the person’s response or action. Environment includes the physical and social environment surrounding an individual. Reciprocal determinism is the mutual influence between the person, environment and behavior; it is at the root of social learning theory. One reason social learning has been so influential is it refutes widely held notions that people only learn through their own personal experience of rewards and consequences. Bandura suggests most learning is done through observation and modeling of the behaviours of others. We management the way in which we were managed; people learn the stove burns why watching others. Asecond reason social learning notions are appropriate for management skills is because there is such a big disconnect between knowing and doing. There are four critical components required to learn through observation, these are: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. Attention Anything that puts a damper on attention will decrease your learning comprehension. Retention You must be able to understand and remember what you have observed. Reproduction Practice, you cannot learn management by just observing, reading or understanding the concept. Practice with feedback makes perfect. Motivation Without the motivation to learn a new skill, you are doomed to fail. Bandura has found that punishment does not work as well as reinforcement. AModel of Self-Management Charles Manz created a simple and practical framework for self-management. Self-management: a process of modifying one’s own behavior by systematically altering how we arrange different cues in our world, how we think about what we hope to change, and how we attach behavioural consequences to our actions. 5 behaviour-focused strategies to improve self-management 1. Self-Observation/Exploration: determining when, why, and under what conditions you currently use certain behaviours. [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] 2. Self-Set Improvement Goals: Determine what your desired outcome or effective behaviours look like and set specific goals for your own behaviours. The best goals are characterized by SMART – specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-bound. 3. Management of Cues: Organize your work environment to assist you in performing the behaviours you want to change. 4. Positive Self-talk and Rehearsal: Go over the behaviour in your head and imagine successful application. Actually practice the new behaviour at available opportunities and seek feedback. Positive self-talk and rehearsal are applications of the social learning principle of reproduction. 5. Self-Reward and Punishment: Provide yourself with personally valued rewards that are linked to performing desirable behaviours or with punishments linked to undesirable behaviours. The self-management model represents the best methodology currently available for facilitating personal improvement. Building Self-Awareness Self-awareness is essential to learning and growth in a management role. Individual Differences and Their Importance From a managerial performance perspective, the two important categories of difference are: 1) ability and 2) personality. Ability is what a person is capable of doing. Personality represents the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person thinks, acts, and behaves. Personality is determined by nature and nurture and tends to represent our “dominant” or “natural” behaviour. Seven elements of self-awareness: the Essential ManagerialAssessment Profile. How Do I Think Critically and Analytically? Cognitive ability is the capacity to learn and process cognitive information such as reading comprehension, mathematical patterns, and spatial patterns. These assessments are timed. How Well Do I Understand and Use Emotion? Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to accurately identify emotions (in self and others) as well as understand and manage those emotions successfully. Unlike cognitive ability, many emotional abilities can be learned. People who are better bale to manage their own and others’ emotions are more likely to be perceived as leaders, show higher job performance, and cope with emotional stress on the job. Cultural Intelligence represents a person’s capability to function effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity. Linn Van Dyne and SoonAng have identified cultural intelligence (or CQ for cultural quotient) as consisting of four different sub-skills: • CQ-Strategy – how a person interprets and understands intercultural experiences • CQ-Knowledge – a person’s understanding of how cultures are similar and different. • CQ-Motivation – a person’s interest in experiencing other cultures and interacting with people from different cultures. • CQ-Behaviour – a person’s capability to modify their own verbal and nonverbal behaviour so it is appropriate for different cultures. rd Management Skills 3S03 March 3 , 2014 What are my Dominant Personality Traits? Aperson’s personality can be organized in a hierarchy with 5 basic and universal dimensions or factors at the top of that hierarchy. The big five dimensions are 1) extraversion, 2) emotional stability, 3) agreeableness, 4) conscientiousness, and 5) openness to experience Extraversion: positive emotions, gregariousness, warmth Emotional stability: anxiety, self-consciousness, vulnerability Agreeableness: trust, straight-forwardness, tender-mindedness Conscientiousness: competence, order, self-discipline Openness to experience: fantasy, actions, ideas What are my Personality Preferences? Our preferences are not traits – deeply rooted dominant characteristics – but rather choices we make (mostly unconsciously) to navigate the world. Preference is much l
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