Management Skills 3S03 March 3 , 2014
Chapter 1: Personal Effectiveness
Effective management starts from the inside. You must be able to manage yourself before you
can manage others. Personal effectiveness (actionable knowledge and behaviours) is the
foundation of great management.
The most powerful and useful framework for thinking about personal improvement in
management skills comes from the work ofAlbert Bandura:
Social learning theory: learning of any new behavior is the result of 3 main factors: the person,
the environment and the behavior; they all influence each other. Behaviour is the person’s
response or action. Environment includes the physical and social environment surrounding an
Reciprocal determinism is the mutual influence between the person, environment and behavior;
it is at the root of social learning theory.
One reason social learning has been so influential is it refutes widely held notions that people
only learn through their own personal experience of rewards and consequences.
Bandura suggests most learning is done through observation and modeling of the behaviours of
others. We management the way in which we were managed; people learn the stove burns why
Asecond reason social learning notions are appropriate for management skills is because there is
such a big disconnect between knowing and doing.
There are four critical components required to learn through observation, these are: attention,
retention, reproduction, and motivation.
Anything that puts a damper on attention will decrease your learning comprehension.
You must be able to understand and remember what you have observed.
Practice, you cannot learn management by just observing, reading or understanding the concept.
Practice with feedback makes perfect.
Without the motivation to learn a new skill, you are doomed to fail. Bandura has found that
punishment does not work as well as reinforcement.
AModel of Self-Management
Charles Manz created a simple and practical framework for self-management.
Self-management: a process of modifying one’s own behavior by systematically altering how
we arrange different cues in our world, how we think about what we hope to change, and how we
attach behavioural consequences to our actions.
5 behaviour-focused strategies to improve self-management
1. Self-Observation/Exploration: determining when, why, and under what conditions you
currently use certain behaviours. [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]
2. Self-Set Improvement Goals: Determine what your desired outcome or effective
behaviours look like and set specific goals for your own behaviours. The best goals are
characterized by SMART – specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-bound.
3. Management of Cues: Organize your work environment to assist you in performing the
behaviours you want to change.
4. Positive Self-talk and Rehearsal: Go over the behaviour in your head and imagine
successful application. Actually practice the new behaviour at available opportunities and
seek feedback. Positive self-talk and rehearsal are applications of the social learning
principle of reproduction.
5. Self-Reward and Punishment: Provide yourself with personally valued rewards that are
linked to performing desirable behaviours or with punishments linked to undesirable
The self-management model represents the best methodology currently available for facilitating
Self-awareness is essential to learning and growth in a management role.
Individual Differences and Their Importance
From a managerial performance perspective, the two important categories of difference are: 1)
ability and 2) personality. Ability is what a person is capable of doing. Personality represents
the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person thinks, acts, and behaves. Personality is
determined by nature and nurture and tends to represent our “dominant” or “natural” behaviour.
Seven elements of self-awareness: the Essential ManagerialAssessment Profile.
How Do I Think Critically and Analytically?
Cognitive ability is the capacity to learn and process cognitive information such as reading
comprehension, mathematical patterns, and spatial patterns. These assessments are timed.
How Well Do I Understand and Use Emotion?
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to accurately identify emotions (in self and others) as
well as understand and manage those emotions successfully. Unlike cognitive ability, many
emotional abilities can be learned. People who are better bale to manage their own and others’
emotions are more likely to be perceived as leaders, show higher job performance, and cope with
emotional stress on the job.
Cultural Intelligence represents a person’s capability to function effectively in situations
characterized by cultural diversity. Linn Van Dyne and SoonAng have identified cultural
intelligence (or CQ for cultural quotient) as consisting of four different sub-skills:
• CQ-Strategy – how a person interprets and understands intercultural experiences
• CQ-Knowledge – a person’s understanding of how cultures are similar and different.
• CQ-Motivation – a person’s interest in experiencing other cultures and interacting with
people from different cultures.
• CQ-Behaviour – a person’s capability to modify their own verbal and nonverbal
behaviour so it is appropriate for different cultures. rd
Management Skills 3S03 March 3 , 2014
What are my Dominant Personality Traits?
Aperson’s personality can be organized in a hierarchy with 5 basic and universal dimensions or
factors at the top of that hierarchy. The big five dimensions are 1) extraversion, 2) emotional
stability, 3) agreeableness, 4) conscientiousness, and 5) openness to experience
Extraversion: positive emotions, gregariousness, warmth
Emotional stability: anxiety, self-consciousness, vulnerability
Agreeableness: trust, straight-forwardness, tender-mindedness
Conscientiousness: competence, order, self-discipline
Openness to experience: fantasy, actions, ideas
What are my Personality Preferences?
Our preferences are not traits – deeply rooted dominant characteristics – but rather choices we
make (mostly unconsciously) to navigate the world. Preference is much l