Textbook Notes (363,019)
Canada (158,147)
Commerce (1,634)
Vera Dodds (10)
Chapter 4


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McMaster University
Vera Dodds

Commerce 3S03 Chapter 4 Motivation Introduction Motivation One of the most perplexing but potentially rewarding aspects of a management roleMyths of MotivationMoney is not the only effective motivatorEveryone is motivated by the same things I amPunishment does not motivateLow performance is always attributable to low motivation Lack of motivation stems largely from lazy and apathetic peopleRelationship between motivation ability and performancePerformance f Motivation x Ability x Opportunity The multiplicative nature of the equation correctly captures that all 3 aspects are essential to performance and that one can only modestly compensate for the otherWhile ability tends to remain stable over time motivation and opportunity are more subject to managerial influence Effective motivation strategies always depend on the people involved their history and contextFraming Motivation Challenges and Ideas The Expectancy TheoryThe most encompassing and applicable theory of motivation for this type of practical diagnosis is the expectancy theory Serves as both our starting point for diagnosing and framing motivational challenges and our structure for integrating a variety of other motivational models and concepts Based on 3 beliefs expectancy instrumentality and valenceExpectancy The understanding of what performance is desired and the persons belief that effort will lead to desired level of performanceInstrumentality The belief that a given level of performance will lead to specific outcomes Instrumentality perceptions can range from zero to certain Motivation will be high only when people believe that there are meaningful consequences positive or negative from their efforts or lack thereof From a managerial perspective instrumentality beliefs point to the critical importance of linking rewards directly to desired performanceValence The value of a person places on future outcomes The most intuitive of expectancy theory elements and is another way of saying Whats in it for me People will place different valences on the same outcome 2 important ideas of expectancy theory warrant special emphasis1 The Motivating Force MF E x I x V High motivation will come only in the case of high levels of all 3 beliefs2 Always remember that expectancy theory is based on individuals beliefs and perceptions not necessarily on a managers beliefs or sometimesobjective reality An individual must believe that effort will lead to good performance believe performance will be rewarded and believe the reward will be personally valued Why Capable People Are Not MotivatedThe expectancy theory is not adequateUse the bucket analogyWhen a persons bucket is full she optimally motivated and assuming sufficient ability performance will follow When a persons bucket is low greater managerial effort will be required to fill that bucket There are 3 primary faucets or sources available to fill an employees motivational bucket1 Personal drives 2 Managerial actions 3 The job or work itselfThe Person as a Source of Motivation Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
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