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McMaster University
Vera Dodds

Commerce 3S03 Chapter 10 Making ChangeGoal is to help develop the skills of an effective change agent whatever the scope of your desired change and regardless of you level in an organization The Challenge of ChangeMany types of changes can occur and many are unplanned Unplanned change is the result of external forces that require some reaction and organizational adaptation Planned change results from manager and others deliberate attempts to improve organizational operations Managers at higher levels have the power and influence to force change in an organization By virtue of their authority and control over key organizational reward systems they can dictate a change from the top and people in the organization will be forced to comply The challenge is on how to influence people when you do not have the formal authority to dictate a desired new direction To do so requires an understanding of how change happens and what can be done to postiviely influence the process The ultimate goal of any change initiative should be to get beyond simple compliance to commitmentMyths of Making ChangeCrisis is a guarantee of changeChange is best motivated by fearCompelling facts are the key to change Old dogs cant learn new tricks General Models of the Change Process 1 Lewins UnfreezeChangeRefreeze ModelExpansion of his field theory He conceived of fields that struggles to maintain the status quo 3 stages Driving forces Status Quo Resisting ForcesUnfreezing Involves overcoming inertia and breaking down existing ways of thinking Resistance Has to be overcome and a readiness or willingness to get involved with a change has to be sparked This stage is often neglected because eager and excited change agentspeople responsible for making or communicating a changeoften dive right in and try to sell their change without first diagnosing and dealing with the resisting factorsChanging Refers to when the change intervention is started and ongoing Often a period of anxiety and tension as old ways are challenged and the reality of a new way is first truly experienced Refreezing A new mindset and behavioural patter is created for those involved and the change yields position benefits for the unit or organization Draws attention to the most important questionsWhat is preventing change and why hasnt it happened yetWhat actions might influence changeHow can change be sustained Based on his theory Lewin developed the concept of a forced field analysisThe current state or status quo is a function of the driving forces and the resisting forces All in all Lewins model provides a general overview of change that has had profound influence on change research and practice Bridges Model of TransitionsCreated by William BridgesTransition is not the same as changeA change occurs when something in our external environment is alteredTransition is the internal process that people must go through to come to terms with a new situation
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