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11 Apr 2012
Commerce 3S03
Chapter 10: Making Change
- Goal is to help develop the skills of an effective change agent whatever the scope of your
desired change and regardless of you level in an organization
The Challenge of Change
- Many types of changes can occur, and many are unplanned
- Unplanned change is the result of external forces that require some reaction and organizational
- Planned change results from manager and others’ deliberate attempts to improve organizational
- Managers at higher levels have the power and influence to force change in an organization
- By virtue of their authority and control over key organizational reward systems, they can dictate
a change from the top and people in the organization will be forced to comply
- The challenge is on how to influence people when you do not have the formal authority to
dictate a desired new direction
- To do so requires an understanding of how change happens and what can be done to postiviely
influence the process
- The ultimate goal of any change initiative should be to get beyond simple compliance to
Myths of Making Change
- Crisis is a guarantee of change
- Change is best motivated by fear
- Compelling facts are the key to change
- Old dogs can’t learn new tricks
General Models of the Change Process
1) Lewin’s Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze Model
- Expansion of his field theory
- He conceived of fields that struggles to maintain the status quo
- 3 stages: Driving forces Status Quo Resisting Forces
Unfreezing: Involves overcoming inertia and breaking down existing ways of thinking
Resistance: Has to be overcome and a readiness or willingness to get involved with a change
has to be sparked
This stage is often neglected because eager and excited change agentspeople responsible
for making or communicating a change-often dive right in and try to sell their change without first
diagnosing and dealing with the resisting factors
Changing: Refers to when the change intervention is started and ongoing
Often a period of anxiety and tension as old ways are challenged and the reality of a new way
is first truly experienced
Refreezing: A new mind-set and behavioural patter is created for those involved, and the change
yields position benefits for the unit or organization
- Draws attention to the most important questions:
What is preventing change and why hasn’t it happened yet?
What actions might influence change?
How can change be sustained?
- Based on his theory, Lewin developed the concept of a forced field analysis
- The current state or status quo is a function of the driving forces and the resisting forces
- All in all, Lewin’s model provides a general overview of change that has had profound influence
on change research and practice
!) Bridges’ Model of Transitions
- Created by William Bridges
- Transition is not the same as change
- A change occurs when something in our external environment is altered
- Transition is the internal process that people must go through to come to terms with a new
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- Individuals experience 3 stages of transition while undergoing change
- Believes the failure to identify and prepare for the inevitable human psychological transitions
that change products is the single largest problem with most change initiatives and why they too
often fail
- The acceleration of transitions become critical
- The critical lesson is to recognize the nature of personal transition and to learn basic transition
management strategies that can help accelerate the process
3) Kotter’s Eight Stages of Change
- A useful way to think about the critical elements necessary to create successful change
Increase Urgency
- Raising a feeling of urgency is the first and most critical step in successful changes
- The goal is to get people out of their established routines and comfort zones and ready to move
- One way to do that is to create dramatic presentations with compelling objects people can
actually touch, see, and feel
Create A Guiding Coalition (Identify your Champions)
- It is important to find the right people who are fully committed to the change initiative and who
can help you influence others and manage resistance
- In some cases, the best champions are those thought to be skeptical of change or who would
be seen as cynics or tough sells
Get the Vision Right
- You want to construct a relevant vision that will help people visualize possible futures
- The ideal is a clear picture of a post-change future, no matter how small, that can articulated in
one minute or written up on one page or less
- People need a clear sense of where they are going and why that future state will be better or the
existing state more undesirable
Communicate for Buy-in
- Communicate a vision and goals to promote understanding
- Sending clear and credible message about the direction or progress of change establishes buy-
in, which in turn gets people ready to act
- Keep it simple and heartfelt
Empower Action
- To empower means to bolster confidence that the job can be done and to recognize and reward
in ways that inspire, promote optimism, and build self-confidence
- Actively encourage input and participation of those who will be involved with the change, be as
open with information and feedback as you can, and keep making the case to resistors so they
feel the need for change
Create Short-term Wins
- Is a recurring method for success and one emphasized by every popular model of change
- Nourish faith in the change effort, emotionally reward the hard workers, keep the critics at bay,
and build momentum
- The change is seen as working and thus energizes people further
Consolidate Gains and Don’t Let up
- You’re not done until the change has been entrenched in the organization
- Successful change agents follow up regularly to ensure the new change remains supported, and
continue to highlight small wins and progress in relation to goals
Anchor Change in Your Culture
- Build a hardiness and capacity for future changes in your workplace
- Successful efforts build on the momentum from one change to stimulate other needed changes
and initiatives
- Highlight the connections between making change and career success by finding ways to
reward risk-taking and change makers
4) A Practical Model of Planned Change
- Reduced to the essential elements, all planned change efforts can be thought of in terms of:
Structuring the problem and contracting with key parties
Collecting data and feedback
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