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ch 3 learning & motivation

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Chapter 3: Learning & Motivation
Learning: the process of acquiring knowledge & skills, involves
a change of state that makes possible a change in one’s
behaviour (a behav. that has been learned = a skill)
Gagne’s Classification System:
1. Verbal info - declarative knowledge (facts, knowledge,
2. Intellectual skills – procedural knowledge (concepts,
rules, procedures)
3. Cognitive strategies - (appltn of info & techniques)
4. Motor skills - (coordination & execution of physical
5. Attitudes
Kurt Kraiger:
1. Cognitive outcomes – verbal knowledge, procedural
knowledge & cognitive strategies
2. Skill-based outcomes – compilation (fast & fluid
performance) & automaticity (perform a task w/out
conscious monitoring)
3. Affective outcomes – attitudinal & motivational
Adaptive Chapter Theory (ACT): describes the learning
process as it unfolds across 3 stages: declarative knowledge,
knowledge compilation & procedural knowledge
Declarative knowledge: learning knowledge, facts & info
all of one’s attention & cognitive resources are required to
learn the task
Knowledge compilation: integrating tasks into sequences
to simplify & streamline the task put the pieces of
knowledge learned in declarative smoothly together, less
thinking, still in pieces though
Procedural knowledge: learner mastered the task & perf. is
automatic & habitual, multi-tasking can be done, habitual
& automatic now
ACT recognizes the fact that learning is a stage-like process that
involves 3 important stages, indicates that diff. types of learning
tak place at diff. stage & motivational interventions might be
more/less effective depending on the stage of learning
Learning style: the way in which an individual gathers info &
processes & acts on it during the learning process experience
(CE = concrete exp. - feeling), ideas & concepts (thinking),
observing info (RO = reflective observation - watching) = diff.
Learning Styles
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Converging: AC & AE = thinking & doing focus on
problem solving
Diverging: CE & RO = feeling & watching generate
alternative courses of actions
Assimilating: AC & RO = thinking & watching process &
integrate info & ideas into logical forms & models
Accommodating: CE & AE = feeling & doing hands-on &
being involved in challenging experiences
Learning Cycle (Kolb): CE (experience) RO (reflecting) AC
(thinking) AE (doing) = the learning cycle improves learning &
retention & the dvlpt of behavioural skills (p.70)
Kolb’s theory recognizes 1) ppl learn diff. 2) TR programs
should be designed w/ ea. learning mode as part of a
sequence of learning experiences
Learning Theories
Conditioning theory: a stimulus/cue is followed by a response,
followed by a –‘tve or +’ve consequence [stimulus behaviour
linking desired behav. to pleasurable consequences is
based on 3 concepts:
shaping: the reinforcement of ea. step in the
process until it is mastered
chaining: reinforcement of the entire sequences of a
task individual learns ea. task sep., & is reinforced
for ea. successive step
generalization: the conditioned response occurs in
circumstances diff. from those during learning [learns
to perform the task in a variety of diff. situations]
Social Cognitive Theory: ppl learn by observing the behav. of
others, making choices about diff. courses of action to pursue &
by managing their own behav. in the process of learning
Observation: learning by observing the actions of others
& their consequences.
4 key elements = attention, retention, reproduction
& reinforcement
Self-efficacy: judgments that ppl have about their ability
to successfully perform a specific task a cognitive belief
that is task-specific.
Influenced by 4 sources of info: task performance
outcomes, observation, verbal persuasion/social
influence, & one’s physiological/emotional state
Self-regulation: involves managing one’s own behav.
through a series of internal processes observing ours &
others behav., setting perf. goals, practicing new & desired
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