3QC3-CH4.docx

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11 Apr 2012
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Operations Management
Chapter 4: Product Design
- Design can provide a competitive edge
Perceptual map: visual method of comparing customer perceptions of different products or
services
Benchmarking Comparing a product or process against the best-in-class product
Reverse engineering: Carefully dismantling a competitor’s product to improve your own product
- A feasibility study consists of a market analysis, an economic analysis, and a technical/strategic
analysis
Rapid prototyping: Creating, testing, and revising a preliminary design model
Concurrent design: A new approach to design that involves simultaneous design of products
and processes by design teams
Form Design: How thr product will look
Its shape, colour, size, and style
Functional design: How the product will provide
- 3 performance caracteristics considered during this phase of design are reliability,
mantainability, and usability
Reliability: The probability that a product will perform its intended function for a specified period
of time
Maintainability: The ease with which a product is maintained or repaired
Also called serviceability
Usability: Ease of use of a product or service
Production design: How the product will be made
Recommended approaches to production design include:
Simplification: Reduces the number of parts, assemblies, or options in a product
Standardization: When commonly available and interchangeable parts are used
Modular design: Combines standardized building blocks, or modules, to create uniquw finished
products
Design for manfacture (DFM): Designing a product so that it can be produced easly and
economically
Computer-aided design (CAD): Assists in the creation, modification, and analysis of a deisgn
Computer-aided engineering (CAE): A software system that tests and analyzes designs on the
computer screen
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM): The ultimate design-to-
manufacture connection
- CAD and its related technologies product better designs faster
Product lifecycle management (PLM): Managing the entire lifecycle of a product
Collaborative product design (CPD): A software system for collaborative design and
development among trading partners
Design Quality Reviews
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA): A systematic method of analyzing product failures
Fault tree analysis (FTA): A visual method for analyzing the interrelationships among failures
Value analysis (VA): A procedure for eliminating unnecessary features and functions
Design for Environment
Extended producer responsibility (EPR): When companies are held responsible for their
product even after its useful life
Eco-labeling: A seal of approval for environmentally safe products
Carbon Footprint: A measure of greenhouse gases
Sustainability: Meeting present needs without compromising future generations
Design for environment (DFE): Designing a product from material that can be recycled or easily
repaired rather than discarded
Quality function deployment(QFD)
- Translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements
Robust design: Yields a product or service designed to withstand variations
Tolerances: Allowable ranges of variation
- Consistency is important to quality
- The quality loss function quantifies customers preferences towards equality