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COMPSCI 1BA3 Chapter Notes -Acronym, Abbreviation, Terminal Punctuation

Computer Science
Course Code

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Defining Blended HTML, XHTML and CSS
o Language used to create Web pages
o Create code to describe structure of a Web page
o Variation of HTML
o More strictly defines how HTML code should be written/structured
o Language used for describing presentation of Web pages
o Ex. Colours and fonts on the Web page
Separating structure and presentation makes easier to modify and share
code to for many Web pages
Web page designer: person who designs Web pages
Web page developer: writes programming code to add function to Web page
Learning About the Internet and the World Wide Web
Internet:: global network of computers linked by high-speed data lines and
wireless systems
World Wide Web (WWW) is provided by Internet
Web browser:
o Software used to view/browse Web pages
o Lets you navigate from one topic, page, site to another
Contemporary browsers: Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Apple
Safari, Google Chrome (Opera popular in Europe)
Exploring Hypertext and Markup
Text and graphics must be formatted in HTML to be seen in a Web browser
Hypertext: way to organize info so can click links and view content in non
sequential order
Markup: symbols in HTML code that indicate how content should appear in
Syntax: specific rules for way code should be written (not a language)
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): organization that develops standards
for languages used on Web
Introducing XHTML
XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language): specifies that code to
display content on Web pages must follow certain rules
Okay to type in uppercase in HTML but only type in lowercase in XHTML
Cross-browser incompatibility: companies create own HTML code that only
work on their browsers
Understanding What XHTML is Not

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Focus of XHTML: uniformly and consistently deliver Web page content
Not in XHTML:
o Complex text formatting
o Composing images
o Manipulating data
o Footnotes, headers, footers
o Automatic column and table layout
Creating a Web Page with Basic XHTML Tags
Mock-up: hand-drawn/typed plan for a page (create before starting XHTML)
o Creates structure on a Web page
o Conveys formatting instructions to browser
o Conveys information about Web page to browser/search engine
Tag: representation of an element in XHTML code (tags are paired)
Empty element:
o Does not have content
o Have only a start tag and no end tag
o Ex. Break element: used to create a new line: <br />
Can test tags to apply more complex formatting
Must be in correct order: <strong><em>Nyce Paints</strong></em>
Managing Your Files
Store all files in same storage location (folder)
Browser automatically looks for image files in same location
Have to specify if image is in a different folder
Typing the Basic XHTML Tags
Document Type Declaration: instruction that associates particular Web page
with Document Type Definition (all should begin with this)
Document Type Definition (DTD):
o Instruction to browser that determines extent to which Web page
must follow XHTML standard
o Strict: renders only code that exactly conforms to XHTML syntax
o Transitional: renders all elements including deprecated code
Deprecated code: code that W3C has determined should no longer be used
Quirks mode: different browsers show Web page differently
Standards mode: Web page is the same in all browsers
<html>: root element with URL to Web site
<head>,<meta>: after html, contains code not shown in browser (keywords,
author, description of content, character set)
Character set: ways to represent characters for communication and storage
(ex. ISO-889-1)
<title>: content appears in title bar at top of browser window
<body>: container for all of page content (code, text, images, etc.)

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Eye line: vertical area of code starting on left edge of screen where can easily
see the start tags
File servers: computers that store files seen on the Web (ex. UNIX)
Entering Comments
Comments <!-- comment -->: used to explain how code was written to oneself
or to other Web developers
Template file can be used as starting point for creating new Web pages
Formatting Text on a Web Page
Creating Headings
Heading elements:
o Used to bring attention to important topics on page
o Change text size and make text appear in bold
o Have default margin so white space created before and after heading
o <h1> are largest, <h6> are smallest
Difference between XHTML and Microsoft Word: Microsoft Word has many
text sizes but XHTML only has six
Displaying a Web Page in a Browser
Save each change made in text editor and refresh page to know it worked
Should test in more than one browser
Do not need to be connected to Internet to view page
Creating Body Text
Paragraph element <p>: create a blank line between paragraphs (like
pressing the Enter key twice)
Will only put one space after punctuation even if you type two
Block-level elements: browser automatically creates blank line above and
below content, border, external margin (ex. Headings, paragraphs)
Making Text Bold or Italic
<strong> element: makes text appear in bold
<em> element: makes text appear in italics
Inline element: contained within block-level element
Identifying Deprecated Elements
Element W3C has determined should no longer be used:
o Center element (used to center text)
o Font element (changed appearance, size, colour of text)
o Underline element (could be confused with a link)
Address element used to be used to italicize e-mail addresses
<blockquote> element:
o Used to cite long quotation
o Block-level element
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