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COMPSCI 1BA3 Chapter Notes -Document Type Declaration, Document Type Definition, Html

Computer Science
Course Code

of 6
session 1.1
Defining Blended HTML, XHTML, and CSS
-language used to create web pages
-you create code to describe the structure of a web page in terms of paragraphs, lists, tables,
forms, and so forth
XHTML-a variation of HTML that more strictly defines how HTML code should be written and
-a language used for describing the presentation of web pages, such as the colors and fonts
you see when web page appears in the browser
web page designer: a person who designs web pages
web page developer: writes programming code to add greater functionality to web pages
web page “devsiner”: a person who has both development and design skills
-work with software such as Microsoft Expression web, microsoft expression design, adobe
dreamweaver, or adobe photoshop
Learning About the Internet and the World Wide Web
• The Internet is a global network of computers linked by high-speed data lines and wireless
-the internet was established in 1969 as a collaborative project between the U.S. Department of
Defense and several colleges on the West Coast
• The World Wide Web (WWW for short) is just one of several services provided by the Internet
• The software you use to view and browse, or “surf,” Web pages is called a Web browser
Exploring Hypertext and Markup
• To display a Web page in a browser, the text and graphics on the Web page must be
formatted using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Hypertext is a way to organize information so that you can click links and view Web content in
a non-sequential manner
Markup refers to the symbols in HTML code that indicate how the text or images should
appear in a browser
-world wide web consortium (W3C) is an organization whose full-time staff works to develop
standards for the many languages used on the world wide web, including the HTML standard.
-HTML is not a programming language
-HTML does use computer code and it has syntax-specific rules for the way code should be
written-but HTML is just a series of instructions that renders(displays an exact likeness of) the
content of your web page in a browser
Introducing XHTML, Understanding What XHTML is not
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) specifies that the code to display content
on Web pages must follow certain rules
-must type code in lowercase
-the sole focus of XHTML is to uniformly and consistently deliver web page content.
-no complex text formatting, composing images, and manipulating data, line spacing, tab
Creating a Web Page with Basic XHTML Tags
-moke-up: a hand-drawn or typed plan for the page
-an XHTML element creates structure on a Web page, conveys formatting instructions to the
browser, or conveys information about the Web page to the browser or search engines
-a tag is a presentation of an element in XHTML code
-empty element does not have any content . for example, the break element(create new line)
-nested element is an element that appears within another element
Typing the Basic XHTML Tags
-Document Type Declaration> an instruction that associates a particular web page with a
document type definition
-document type definition(DTD) is an instruction to the browser that determines the extent to
which the web page should follow the XHTML standard
-quirks mode: different browsers may render your web pages differently (without document
type declaration)
-document type declaration, the document will be displayed in standards mode, which ensures
that it will appear as consistently as possible in all browsers
-the html element is the root element, the container for all the other elements on the web page
-the head section contains XHTML code that does not appear in the browser’s document
window, which is the part of the browser window where web pages appear
-metadata-information about the document itself, such as its keywords, the author of the web
page, and a description of the content on the web page
- ISO-8859 is a character set, one of many standardize ways to represent characters for
communication and storage
-the body element is the container for all of the page content-the code, the text and the images
for your document that appear in the document window in the browser
-blank lines and indenting are examples of white space, which is any part of the page that does
not have content
-type most start tags at the left edge of the screen, establishing eye line, a vertical area of code
where you can easily see the start tags
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
" http :// www . w 3. org / TR / xhtml 1/ DTD / xhtml 1- strict . dtd ">
-document type declaration
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">
-html element
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" />
-metadata in the head section
-file servers are the computers that store the files you see on the web
Entering Comments
-comments are used to explain how the code was written, to indicate an unusual or particular
circumstance, or to otherwise include information that helps you or other web developers to
better understand the code on a web page
-template file can be used as the starting point for creating new web pages.
Session 1.2
Formatting Text on a web page
creating headings
-the heading elements are used to bring attention to important topics on the page
heading elements: h1, (24 pt)h2(18pt), h3(14pt), h4(12pt), h5(10pt), h6 (8pt)
creating body text
-the paragraph element and all six heading elements are all examples of block-level elements-
the browser automatically creates a blank line above and below their content
Making text bold or italic
-strong element makes text appear in bold
-em element makes text appear in italics
-strong and em elements are examples of an inline element, which means it is contained within
a blocked -level element
Identifying Deprecated Elements
• A deprecated element is one that the W3C has determined should no longer be used(center
element, font element, underline element)
• A number of other elements have not been deprecated, but they have clearly fallen out of
favor with Web page designers because there are better alternatives
• http://www.w3.org
http :// webdesign . about . com / od / htmltags / a / bltags _ deprctag . htm
-the site footer area, the area at the bottom of the web page, has become much more complex