ENGLISH 3D03 Chapter Notes -E. M. Forster, Air Conditioning
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The Machines Stops & Night
THE MACHINE STOPS
1. E.M. FORSTER
3. John w. Campbell, jr
5. TECHNOLOGICAL CATASTROPHE, APOCALYPSE
6. ENTROPY: THE DEATH OF THE UNIVERSE
Humanity makes The Machine; The Machine remakes humanity.
There is no ‘forever’ for human life; what will we leave behind?
THE HEAT DEATH OF THE UNIVERSE AS A NOVUM: FIRST AND SECOND
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
1. “The result would inevitably be a state of universal rest and death, if the universe
were finite and left to obey existing laws. But it is impossible to conceive a limit to
the extent of matter in the universe; and therefore science points rather to an
endless progress, through an endless space, of action involving the
transformation of potential energy into palpable motion palpable motion, and
hence into heat, than to a single finite mechanism, running down like a clock, and
stopping for ever.”
2. Thomson, William. (1862). “On the age of the sun’s heat,” Macmillan’s Mag., 5,
288–93; PL, 1, 394–68
3. Machine parts wear out, fail, and where is the energy coming from to run it?
4. Cars, computers, lawnmowers, heaters, air conditioners, furnaces, lighting,
cooking appliances, dishwashers, clotheswashers and dryers, fridges…
5. Think how often these break or just stop.
AIR TRAVEL AND SPACE TRAVEL:
6. Some dates:
1. 1990: Wright brothers’ gliders that could stay aloft for two minutes.
2. 1903, their machine-powered plane.
3. 1909, the year Forster published TMS, Orville Wright flew a plane with a
passenger along for an hour and twelve minutes.
WW1, 1914-18: THE FLYING ACES
1. 1930s, Soviet government set up rocket research groups
2. WW2, 1939-1945: WW2 ballistic missiles rockets developed the model for the
rocket engine (Gmn A4 ballistic missile).
3. The descent module of the Vostok 3KA No. 3 spacecraft which carried Yuri
Gagarin into space. The capsule's hatch can be seen on the left and the demo
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