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GEOG 1HA3 (22)
Chapter 1

Geography chapter 1

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Michael Mercier

Geography revision: intro, chapter 1,2 & 5: test: October 5 th Geography: patterns & processes on earth Geo literacy: *space/location & place+ also… *Distance/distribution (density and patterns)+ Space: aerial extent - absolute [objective & measurable] -relative [subjective & opinionated] Landscape: characteristics of a particular area especially as created through human activity Landscapes make regions differ Cultural landscapes: outcome of interactions between people & their environment [visible human imprint] many cultures = many distint cultural landscapes Region: earth surface – displays internal homogeneity & relatively distinct from surrounding areas internal homogeneity vs/ external heterogeneity Regionalization: process where we simplify our complex world into patterns and processes into regions Globalization: economic, political & cultural change that have been long evident (i.e: migration) Location: specific part where something is situated - absolute [mathematical] -relative [opinionated ‘close to far from’+ -nominal / toponym [place name] Place: identity, meaning or significance sense of place: personal meaning & attachment i.e: cultural place, sacred place placelessness: homogeneity & standardization [i.e: common brands (artificial Italian food)] Distance: amount of space between two or more locations - absolute/physical -travel -economic/communication -psychological distance Distribution: distance organization 3 forms: 1) density [ratio] 2)concentration/dispersion 3)Pattern: spatial arrangement of objects: uniform/random Diffusion: movement/spread of geographic phenomena across space - relocation: spread of ideas, cultures through physical movement -expansion: spread of innovations Expansion diffusion: 2 main subtypes 1) Hierarchical: ideas/innovations leap frog from one important person to another 2)Contagious: rapid & widespread diffusion (gossip /disease) spatial & social diffusion: the iPod. MAP WORK Map: graphic representation of geographical setting Cartography: art of map making Maps serve 2 primary purposes: 1) accurate representation of data 2)solving spatial problems:  Dot maps (cluster and dispersion)  Chloropleth  Isopleth  Cartogram Perception & mental mapping: engagement with real physical/human environments occurs through personal ideas Mental map: unique personal representation of reality – imperfect knowledge *our perception of reality is what matters, not reality* Maps: socially contrasted reflect the power of the people that draw them Solving spatial problems: - navigational maps -pictographs Cultural point of view: -maps reflect fear/anxiety -maps can be an art Maps statement of power & authority: -british empire: sun never sets *maps can be seen as visuaul representations of data* Interpreting maps: - scale -perspective -projection -type Large scale vs/ small scale: small scale will have more detail because it is zoomed into a smaller area Antipocentric map: couth pointing up top Longitude: angular distance on the surface of the earth : measure in degrees, minutes and seconds. East and west of the prime meridian. Constant longitude are called meridians Latitude: angular distance north and south of the equator. Lines of constant latitude are called parallels. Cosmography: science that map
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