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GEOG 1HB3 (61)
Chapter 4

Geography 1HB3 Chapter 4.docx

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Anna Robertson

Geography Chapter 4 Definitions Agricultural Density: the number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land; a variant of physiological density that excludes urban population. Arithmetic Density: Carrying Capacity: the maximum population numbers that an area can support on a continuing basis without experiencing unacceptable deterioration; for humans, the numbers supportable by an area’s known and used resources- usually agricultural ones. Chain Migration: the process by which migration movement from a common home area to a specific destination are sustained by links of friendship of kinship between first movers and second followers. Channelized Migration: the tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections, or by some other affinity. Cohort: a population group unified by specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit during their lifetimes. Counter Migration: the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated. Crude Birth Rate (CBR): Crude Death Rate (CDR): Crude Density: the number of people per unit area of land. Demographic Equation: a mathematical expression that summarizes the contribution of different demographic processes to the population change of a given area, during a specified time period (with some stupid math equation) Demographic Transition: a model of the effect of economic development on population growth. A first stage involves stable numbers with both high birth rates and death rates; the second displays high birth rates, falling death rates, and population increases. Stage three shows reduction in population growth as birth rates decline to the level of death rates. The fourth and final stage again implies a population stable in size but with larger numbers than at the start of the transition process. An idealized summary of population history of industrializing Europe, its application to newly developed countries is questioned. Demography: the scientific study of population, with particular emphasis on quantitative aspects. Dependency Ratio: the number of dependents, old or young, each 100 persons in the economically productive years most on average. Doubling Time: the time period required for any beginning total experiencing a compounding growth to double in size. Ecological Optimum: the density of population which cannot be supported by the area’s natural resources. Ecumene: that part of the earth’s surface physically suitable for permanent human settlement; the permanently inhabited area of the earth. Homeostatic Plateau: the application of the concept of homeostasis, or relatively stable state of equilibrium, to the balance between population numbers and areal resources; the equilibrium level of population that available resources can adequately support. J-Curve: a curve shaped like the letter j, depicting exponential or geometric growth. Malthus: Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1843). English economist, demographer, and cleric who suggested that unless self-control, war, or natural disaster checks population, it will inevitably increase faster than will the food supplies needed to sustain it. This view is known as Malthusianism. Migration: the permanent (or relatively permanent) relocation of an individual or group to a new, usually distant, place of
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