Geography Chapter 4
Agricultural Density: the number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive
land; a variant of physiological density that excludes urban population.
Carrying Capacity: the maximum population numbers that an area can support on a
continuing basis without experiencing unacceptable deterioration; for humans, the
numbers supportable by an area’s known and used resources- usually agricultural ones.
Chain Migration: the process by which migration movement from a common home area
to a specific destination are sustained by links of friendship of kinship between first
movers and second followers.
Channelized Migration: the tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially
and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections,
or by some other affinity.
Cohort: a population group unified by specific common characteristic, such as age, and
subsequently treated as a statistical unit during their lifetimes.
Counter Migration: the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier
Crude Birth Rate (CBR):
Crude Death Rate (CDR):
Crude Density: the number of people per unit area of land.
Demographic Equation: a mathematical expression that summarizes the contribution of
different demographic processes to the population change of a given area, during a
specified time period (with some stupid math equation)
Demographic Transition: a model of the effect of economic development on population
growth. A first stage involves stable numbers with both high birth rates and death rates;
the second displays high birth rates, falling death rates, and population increases. Stage
three shows reduction in population growth as birth rates decline to the level of death
rates. The fourth and final stage again implies a population stable in size but with larger
numbers than at the start of the transition process. An idealized summary of population
history of industrializing Europe, its application to newly developed countries is
Demography: the scientific study of population, with particular emphasis on quantitative
Dependency Ratio: the number of dependents, old or young, each 100 persons in the
economically productive years most on average.
Doubling Time: the time period required for any beginning total experiencing a
compounding growth to double in size.
Ecological Optimum: the density of population which cannot be supported by the area’s
Ecumene: that part of the earth’s surface physically suitable for permanent human
settlement; the permanently inhabited area of the earth. Homeostatic Plateau: the application of the concept of homeostasis, or relatively stable
state of equilibrium, to the balance between population numbers and areal resources; the
equilibrium level of population that available resources can adequately support.
J-Curve: a curve shaped like the letter j, depicting exponential or geometric growth.
Malthus: Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1843). English economist, demographer, and cleric
who suggested that unless self-control, war, or natural disaster checks population, it will
inevitably increase faster than will the food supplies needed to sustain it. This view is
known as Malthusianism.
Migration: the permanent (or relatively permanent) relocation of an individual or group to
a new, usually distant, place of