GEOG 2OC3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Jean Lesage, Red River Colony, Manitoba Act

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WEEK 4 TERMS
Paleo-Indians: Considered by archeologists, the first people of North America because they shared a
common hunting culture, which was characterized by its uniquely designed fluted-point stone
spearhead.
Culture Areas: Regions within which the population has a common set of attitudes, economic and social
practices and values.
Terra Nullius: The doctrine according to which European countries claimed legal right to ownership of
the land occupied by Indians and Inuit because the land was not cultivated and lacked permanent
settlements.
Doctrine of Manifest Destiny: The belief and subsequent political actions in the 19th century America
that the United States, by divine right, should expand to the Pacific Coast. In some views, the expansion
was to include all of North America (Canada as well).
Term coined by: John L O’Sullivan in 1845, journalist.
Aboriginal Rights: The practices, customs and traditions that Aboriginal people practiced prior to
contact with or large-scale settlement by Europeans. Aboriginal rights vary from group to group.
Oregon Territory: Territory in the Pacific Northwest stretching from 42 degrees north to 54 degrees 40’
South. The possession which was disputed between the US and Great Britain (now composed of BC,
Washington and Oregon).
The Red River Migration: British-instituted migration organized by the Hudson’s Bay Company where
perhaps as many as 1,000 settlers from Fort Garry travelled by horse drawn wagons to Fort Vancouver in
1841 to shore up the British claim to the Oregon Territory.
National Policy: A Policy of high tariffs instituted in 1879 by John A MacDonald to insulate Canada’s
infant manufacturing industries from foreign competition and thus create a national industrial base.
Aboriginal Peoples: All Canadians whose ancestors lived in Canada before the arrival of Europeans,
includes statues and non-status Indians, Metis, and Inuit.
Status (registered) Indians: Aboriginal peoples who are registered as Indians under the Indian Act.
Non-status Indians: Those of American ancestry who are not registered as Indians under the Indian Act.
Treaty Indians: Aboriginal peoples who are descendants of Indians who signed a numbered treaty and
who benefit from the rights described in the treaty. All treaty Indians are status Indians, but not all
status Indians are treaty Indians.
Metis: People of mixed biological and cultural heritage, usually either French-Indian or English- or
Scottish-Indian. The joining of blood lines between the Indians and Europeans took place during the fur
trade and continues today. Originally, the term was more narrowly applied to French-Indian people who
settled in the Red River area and who developed a distinct hunting economy and society based on the
French language and the Roman Catholic religion.
Inuit: People who descended from the Thule, who migrated into Canada’s Artic from Alaska about 1000
years ago. The Inuit do not fall under the Indian Act, but are identified as an Aboriginal people under the
Constitution Act, 1982.
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Document Summary

Paleo-indians: considered by archeologists, the first people of north america because they shared a common hunting culture, which was characterized by its uniquely designed fluted-point stone spearhead. Culture areas: regions within which the population has a common set of attitudes, economic and social practices and values. Terra nullius: the doctrine according to which european countries claimed legal right to ownership of the land occupied by indians and inuit because the land was not cultivated and lacked permanent settlements. Doctrine of manifest destiny: the belief and subsequent political actions in the 19th century america that the united states, by divine right, should expand to the pacific coast. In some views, the expansion was to include all of north america (canada as well). Term coined by: john l o"sullivan in 1845, journalist. Aboriginal rights: the practices, customs and traditions that aboriginal people practiced prior to contact with or large-scale settlement by europeans.

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