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Chapter 1

History - Chapter 1,2,4 & 7 Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Bonny Ibhawoh

CHAPTER ONE – 1900: A PREVIEW OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY Technology  1900: Wright brother’s tested first flying machine  Airplane symbolizes emergence of technology based on new scientific knowledge  Technology became one of central forces shaping twentieth-century life  Technology brought many helpful advances (ex. computers, automobiles)  Also brought consequences that strained humanity’s capacity to adapt to them (ex. nuclear weapons that could extinguish all human life) Economics th  Economics played large role in 20 century as well  Food production increased with technology but governments controlling supply of food created unequal distribution  Caused famines (like in India from 1875-1900)  Great Britain encouraged India to produce export crops for them  Use land to produce jute, cotton, tea, wheat for British rather than for own growing population  Major economic theme: continuing disparity between poor and affluent areas of the world  International businesses controlled world’s resources  Created prosperity for a few favoured nations only (ex. Europe, North America, East Asia, Middle East) Social and Political Conflict  Anarchists said rich exploited the poor  Thought there should not be government  Anarchists often used violence to exert power over poor  Dropped bombs where poor people would be  People who were against anarchists killed powerful people (ex. presidents)  Nationalism: Boxer Rebellion in China o One of most dramatic events in 1900 o “Boxers” surrounded place that housed diplomatic community  Powerful nations tried to impose will on weaker nations  Usually failed to make conquered people stop wanting to be free of their controls  This was reason for the collapse of colonial empires Nietzsche and The Conflict of Religious and Cultural Values  Friedrich Nietzsche was very influential philosopher  He said religion was no longer credible, “God is dead”  Said Christianity was a strategy of the weak intended to enslave the strong  He did not approve of Christianity or Western culture that evolved from it  Predicted future of uncertainty, revolution, war, turmoil  Led some to seek enlightenment from other cultures than Western values CHAPTER TWO – GENERAL TRENDS BEFORE WORLD WAR I Western Civilization Appears Dominant  World was dominated by Europe and United States  Led world in scientific discoveries, technology, military/economic power  Western peoples had opportunity for better education, health care, social services  Western nations had ethnic/religious differences and political conflicts  European nations had hostility towards neighbours Science and Technology  Europe and US had wave of scientific discoveries and technological improvements  Biology: Charles Darwin: o On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) o The Descent of Man (1871) o Species originated through process of natural selection o Most adaptable survived o Explained history of humans but some still believed bible  Psychology: Sigmund Freud o Humans driven by unconscious pleasure-seeking forces o Conflict of unconscious and conscious led to psychological conflict o Developed psychoanalysis (looked at dreams) to deal with this A Great Age of Theoretical and Applied Science  Wilhelm Roentgen (1895): discover x-rays  Antoine Becquerel: discover radioactivity of uranium  Marie and Pierre Curie (1898): discover radioactive radium and polonium  Albert Einstein: o Challenged thinking about the nature of the universe o Atom is combination of particle moving at enormous velocity o Useful thermal energy released if nuclei of atoms could be altered o Theory of relativity Advances in Health Care and the Cure of Disease  Anesthesia techniques allow doctors to perform more complicated operations  Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch: proved bacteria was cause of previously incurable diseases and could be controlled  Chemists discovered vitamins  Improvements in health care and control of disease led to population increase  Population increases caused overcrowding and food shortages Development of Electricity and the Telephone  Thomas Edison: electricity, electric lighting  Telegraph and undersea cables linked world together  Guglielmo Marconi (1895): sent messages through space with wireless transmitter  Radio and motion picture Development of Steam-Driven Transportation and the Internal Combustion Engine  Steamships/steam-driven locomotives accelerated travel on land and water  Invention of internal combustion engine led to automobile  Explosives and propellants developed (cordite, TNT, nitroglycerin)  Made new class of artillery and improved fragmentation weapons  New weapons increased number of people they could injure Economic Trends Industrialized Nations Need Markets and Raw Materials, Often From Abroad  Major economic countries: Great Britain, Germany, US  Iron ore, petroleum, electricity provide power for production of iron and steel, machinery, chemicals and textiles  Western nation’s industries outgrew local resources/markets  Had to move to parts of Latin America, Africa, Asia for other materials  Japan and Russia protected themselves by starting industrialization as well Western Nations Build Up a Worldwide Industrial and Agricultural Network  Westerners produced and distributed agricultural products  Organized many areas of world into agricultural factories  Europe and US could enjoy different foods from around world  People moved/were forced to move to different places to provide labour  Ex. Westerners imported black Africans to work as slaves Suez and Panama Canals Facilitate Global Commercial Traffic  Suez and Panama canals created networks in Europe and US  Ships transported raw materials and finished products around world  Trains allowed cargo to be transported over land  Economic development required investment money  Main investor around world was “Insured by Lloyds of London” Population Mobility and Social Classes Industrialization Brings Social Problems, Especially Crime  Social consequence of industrialization: people left countryside to work  Old cities grew and new cities appeared  Populations grew to large for authorities to deal with  Cities faced poor sanitation/housing, crime, shortage of schools/hospitals  Members of upper class dominated Western nations Growth of Prosperous Middle Class  Originally: shopkeepers, skilled artisans, physicians, clergymen  20 century included: engineers, business manager, architects, teachers  Could live in modest comfort  Saved money for better home, education, retirement, etc. Improvement in Working-Class Conditions  Mass production and improved agricultural techniques provide cheaper clothing, shoes, food  Wage increased for working class  Many workers could afford to add meat, dairy products, veggies to diet  Better diet and improved healthcare increased life expectancy  Laws forbidding child labour allowed children to go to school  Still lived in cramped houses  Workplaces were dangerous, unhealthy, noisy Increased Status of Women  Invention of typewriter open new opportunities  Single women could work in business offices  Rise in income for working-class families allow wives to stay at home  Was signal of wealth if wife did not have to work  Farmer trends in Europe: o Farmers who owned lots of land expanded and mechanized operations o Switched from producing grain to beef, dairy, vegetables o Needed to meet changing consumption patterns o Farmers maintained comfortable lifestyle but were not rich o Many lost lad so went to work in factories Competing Political Forces Liberal-Conservative Struggles in Europe  Conservatives: o Came from more privileged groups of society o Supported existing class distinctions, autocratic government, economic privileges for upper classes o Defended churches, divine-right monarchy and powerful military  Liberals o Came from rising business/professional classes o Wanted to change society so they were more secure/powerful o Wanted freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly o Right for men who had lots of property to vote and hold office o Commerce free from restrictions  1900: liberalism was strong force in Great Britain, France, some of Italy Urban Workers Try to Organize  Western workers organized into trade unions  Forced improvements from employers by bargaining, picketing, strikes, boycotts  Wanted to improve wages and working conditions, get pensions Marx Produces Influential Ideas About Economic and Social Issues  Karl Marx was one of most important political theorists in world  Theory of historical/dialectical materialism  Theory: productive forces like technology, material resources, labour determined economic relationships  Productive forces and economic relationships made up foundation of society  Determined “superstructure” of government, laws, religion, culture  Production forces changed so economic relationships changed, new classes emerged, new superstructures created  Old powerful force had to be overthrown  Class conflict would continue until communism established  Unionism & Marxism both had followers  Marx said conditions of workers under capitalism would grow worse  Instead: salaries, working, living conditions improved as socialism was warded off  Workers wanted to gain share of political power not overthrow capitalism Socialist Parties Emerge  Socialists in Europe and US decide to replace capitalism  Want to replace through political party system not violence  Marxist parties increased in nations that allowed a popular vote  Anarchism and syndicalism became more prominent  Anarchists: o Believed governments exploited people on behalf of wealthy o Wanted to destroy all governments o Assassinated president of France, US, two Spanish premiers, king of Italy, empress of Austria  Syndicalists: o Believed trade union-led strike would paralyze society and destroy government o Then unions would be basic structures of society o Largest group in US was Industrial Workers of the World (“Wobblies”) Western Political Ideas Influential Outside the West  Start of 20 century: liberalism strong in Western-educated Indians  Marxism was insignificant before World War I  Major Western influence in Asia: o Sun Yat-sen overthrew old regime in China o Attempted to replace with regime founded on democratic, liberal, moderate socialist principles Nationalism Many Forms of Nationalism Appear th  Nationalism spread around world in 20 century  Nationalism: learned emotional loyalty that individuals direct toward a group with which they perceive common bonds  Gives sense of membership and belonging  Have common religion, language, territory, history, traditions, etc.  Common history is important  Ex. Germans wanted to overcome regional, political, religious differences by emphasizing triumphs in distant tribal past  Ex. Mexicans of Amerindian extraction stressed Aztec and Mayan past rather than Spanish heritage Nationalism as a Unifying Force  Nationalism well established in western Europe and US by 1900  Leaders used printed word and educational system to influence individuals supporting government  US had different types of nationalism  (1) Traditional belief of ethnic and religious people who wanted economic opportunity and political democracy  (2) Cultural tradition reflecting values and prejudice of politically and economically powerful Nationalism as a Divisive Force  Nationalism was usually divisive not unifying  Inspired dominant group to persecute minorities  Actions based on ethnic antagonism, economic jealousy, religious hatred  Ex. Pogrom (government-instigated mob attacks) in Russia against Jews and Turkish suppression of Armenians  Some populations under dominance wanted to break away from control  Want to form own nation or join neighbouring nation  Ex. Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire: o Governed many ethnic minority groups that were nationalistic o Held together by loyalty to monarchy and Catholic Church o Germans and Magyars stressed their dominance o Slavs and other minorities pushed for own states o Nationalisms/ethnic prejudices contributed to collapse of empire Nationalism Spreads Outside the West  Nationalism taking hold in Asia by 1900  Japanese say they were superior  Chinese channeled wanted to overthrow Machu dynasty and resist Western and Japanese imperialism  India worked to throw off British rule by uniting India International Relations Imperialism – A Changing Cast of Imperialist Nations  Imperialism: process by which a small number of industrial nations extended economic and political control over much of rest of world  Imperialism fueled by: o Economy: Western and Japanese industrialists searched for new markets, cheap labour, industrial raw materials, agricultural products, places for investment (wanted to take over places where could produce things cheaply) o Nationalism: countries had urge to compete with other nations to become most powerful o Strategy: control of key waterways, ports, military outposts (ex. British took over Suez Canal as trade route) Cultural Imperialism  Westerners thought white race was superior  Said it was white man’s burden to bring their benefits (technology, religion, institutions) to inferior nonwhites  White people said that they had the most historical/cultural achievements Belief in the Survival of the Fittest Among Nations  Social Darwinism: o Herbert Spencer said survival of the fittest should be applied to competition among cultures, nations, people o Thought it was right for superior cultures to control/eliminate inferior cultures o Ex. France conquered Algeria and tried to get rid of local traditions, language, religion o French tried to argue there was no such thing as Algerian nation  Christian missionary: o Missionaries from Europe and US wanted to spread to Africa and Asia o Missionaries often got in fights with adherents of local culture o Ex. French missionary was killed by Chinese, Napoleon III started war against China  Imperialists believed that West would dominate world forever  Entire societies in Africa, Asia, Latin America were modified or destroyed  Conquered peoples were always changed Imperialism Bings Threats of War  Fashoda Crisis: o British wanted to build colonial empire and transcontinental railroad from South Africa to Egypt o French imperialists want empire from western Africa to east coast o Rivals confronted each other in Fashoda o People from France and Great Britain rushed to support nations o Conflict was stopped by intercession of moderate diplomats and second thoughts by French Imperialist Problems Usually Settled By Diplomacy  Most problems solved peacefully not by war  Violent: Japan and Russia fought over Korea and Manchuria and British battled Dutch in South Africa  Peaceful: 14 Nations met at Berlin Colonial Conference to decide fate of Congo in Africa  Japan, Germany, Russia, Italy thought they did not have fair share of world  Great Britain, France, US were satisfied with territorie
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