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Chapter 8-12

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Bonny Ibhawoh

CHAPTER EIGHT – WORLD WAR I The Opening Phase of the War  War was very popular  People were very enthusiastic about participating  Thought it would be a short war (would be home before fall) Schlieffen Plan  Germans put most of troops against France  Assigned limited forces to hold off Russians  Germans wanted to encircle the French  German armies moved forward all through August  Were about to reach Paris by September were having problems: o Supplies were lagging behind because horses were slow o Size of German force made it hard for commander to coordinate them  Allies rushed to Paris with a series of counterattacks  Germans decided to pull back to the Aisne River  Both sides extended battle line to sea coast  October 1914: trench system was 450 miles long across Belgium and France Germans Fail in France – But Win in Prussia  Russians attacked German forces on Prussian frontier  Germans already in East Prussia defeated Russian army at Tannenberg and at Masurian Lakes  Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria also joined Germany and Austria-Hungary  Four were called Central Powers and opposition was Allies The Period of Stalemate Stalemate on Both Eastern and Western Fronts  1915: Italy attacked Austria because British and French promised them Austrian and Ottoman territory  Allies tried to defeat Ottoman Empire and open water route to supply Russia but failed  German, Austrian and Bulgarian troops overran Serbia  Germans conquered Poland and Lithuania in Russia  1916: German, Austrian, Bulgarian forces overran Romania  Russians entered eastern Romania to prevent invasion of southern Russia  Germans did not have enough forces to launch invasion  Eastern front also became a stalemate The War Outside Europe  Africa: o Allied colonial troops captured German colonies o Most of German Southwest Africa was overrun o Small German force remained in East Africa till end of war Japan Expands its Power in the Pacific and Asia  Japan: o Declared war on Germany o Japanese and British cleared German forces from China o Used war to advance imperialist Designs on China o Presented Twenty-One Demands to Chinese government o Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, US backed Japan on wanting to take over China o China joined the war on the side of the Allies The British are First Repulsed and Then Triumphant in West Asia  Ottoman Empire was first able to defend themselves in West Asian territories  1917: British and ANZAC (Australia and New Zealand) forces were able to fully take over Middle East  Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, South African units fought with British troops in Europe and Middle East  P. 108: “The presence in Europe of personnel from other continents was a forewarning of the decline of European global power during the twentieth century” …what? The War of Attrition Becomes Total War  Trenches, machine guns, etc. dominated front lines.  Was impossible to achieve breakthrough of the enemy  Both sides kept trying resulting in no progress but massive casualties Total War  Each government had to mobilize all its resources  Civilian population and military forces became more blended together  Governments became more controlling over lives of their people The War on Land Battlefield Misery  Commanders began to settle for killing more of enemies men than their own  War became more about killing than about breakthroughs  Men also died from: sniper fire, frontline patrols, random mortar fire, disease, exposure and soiled/adulterated rations  Lived in horrible conditions: rats, lice, mud The Advent of the Airplane and the Tank Suggests a Breakthrough in the Stalemate  Each side invented new weapons to overcome stalemate  Used airplanes and dirigibles for observation and attack  Airplanes also targeted civilian population  Tanks also used to break through trenches The War at Sea Britain Blockades Germany with Mines  Germany and Great Britain were dependent on overseas sources of raw materials and food 
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