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Chapter 8

HISTORY 3CG3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Shandong, Meiji Constitution, Peace Preservation Law


Department
History
Course Code
HISTORY 3CG3
Professor
Bonny Ibhawoh
Chapter
8

Page:
of 11
CHAPTER EIGHT WORLD WAR I
The Opening Phase of the War
War was very popular
People were very enthusiastic about participating
Thought it would be a short war (would be home before fall)
Schlieffen Plan
Germans put most of troops against France
Assigned limited forces to hold off Russians
Germans wanted to encircle the French
German armies moved forward all through August
Were about to reach Paris by September were having problems:
o Supplies were lagging behind because horses were slow
o Size of German force made it hard for commander to coordinate them
Allies rushed to Paris with a series of counterattacks
Germans decided to pull back to the Aisne River
Both sides extended battle line to sea coast
October 1914: trench system was 450 miles long across Belgium and France
Germans Fail in France But Win in Prussia
Russians attacked German forces on Prussian frontier
Germans already in East Prussia defeated Russian army at Tannenberg and
at Masurian Lakes
Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria also joined Germany and Austria-Hungary
Four were called Central Powers and opposition was Allies
The Period of Stalemate
Stalemate on Both Eastern and Western Fronts
1915: Italy attacked Austria because British and French promised them
Austrian and Ottoman territory
Allies tried to defeat Ottoman Empire and open water route to supply Russia
but failed
German, Austrian and Bulgarian troops overran Serbia
Germans conquered Poland and Lithuania in Russia
1916: German, Austrian, Bulgarian forces overran Romania
Russians entered eastern Romania to prevent invasion of southern Russia
Germans did not have enough forces to launch invasion
Eastern front also became a stalemate
The War Outside Europe
Africa:
o Allied colonial troops captured German colonies
o Most of German Southwest Africa was overrun
o Small German force remained in East Africa till end of war
Japan Expands its Power in the Pacific and Asia
Japan:
o Declared war on Germany
o Japanese and British cleared German forces from China
o Used war to advance imperialist Designs on China
o Presented Twenty-One Demands to Chinese government
o Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia, US backed Japan on wanting to
take over China
o China joined the war on the side of the Allies
The British are First Repulsed and Then Triumphant in West Asia
Ottoman Empire was first able to defend themselves in West Asian territories
1917: British and ANZAC (Australia and New Zealand) forces were able to
fully take over Middle East
Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, South African units fought with British
troops in Europe and Middle East
P. 108: “The presence in Europe of personnel from other continents was a
forewarning of the decline of European global power during the twentieth
century” …what?
The War of Attrition Becomes Total War
Trenches, machine guns, etc. dominated front lines.
Was impossible to achieve breakthrough of the enemy
Both sides kept trying resulting in no progress but massive casualties
Total War
Each government had to mobilize all its resources
Civilian population and military forces became more blended together
Governments became more controlling over lives of their people
The War on Land
Battlefield Misery
Commanders began to settle for killing more of enemies men than their own
War became more about killing than about breakthroughs
Men also died from: sniper fire, frontline patrols, random mortar fire,
disease, exposure and soiled/adulterated rations
Lived in horrible conditions: rats, lice, mud
The Advent of the Airplane and the Tank Suggests a Breakthrough in the Stalemate
Each side invented new weapons to overcome stalemate
Used airplanes and dirigibles for observation and attack
Airplanes also targeted civilian population
Tanks also used to break through trenches
The War at Sea
Britain Blockades Germany with Mines
Germany and Great Britain were dependent on overseas sources of raw
materials and food
Great Britain seized all merchant sips carrying contraband for Germany
Germans developed submarine to fight back
Germany Blockades British with Submarines
1915: German U-boats destroyed shipping to Great Britain
British reaction:
o Arm merchant ships
o Have merchant ships ram submarines
o Send war supplies and soldiers on passenger liners
o Fly flags of neutral nations
o Register British ships under foreign governments
Germans sunk ships without warning, killing many
Threats from US government caused Germany to restrict aggressiveness of
submarines
The War at Home
The Home Front Incorporates Civilians Into the War
Nations had to create a new war front (“home front”)
All men were taken from their homes to fight in the war (even teenagers,
elderly and marginally disabled)
Women Replace Men in Many Hitherto Male Occupations
Women recruited for labour in factories, offices, farms
Adolescents started to work in industry
Governments took control of production of industrial raw materials
Financed research, development and production of substitutes when
materials ran low
Citizens helped by:
o Working overtime
o Planting gardens
o Investing in government bonds
o Would fast and go without meat
o Watch for spies and saboteurs
The Break in the Stalemate
Germans Resume Submarine Blockade of Britain
Winter of 1916-1917:
o German morale weakening under British blockade
o German population experiencing deprivation
o Got approval to resume submarine warfare
o Submarines were very effective