Textbook Notes (363,130)
Canada (158,212)
Anju Joshi (18)
Chapter 4

Aging in Canada - Demographics of Aging (Chapter 4).docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Health, Aging and Society
Anju Joshi

Aging in Canada Chapter 4 1BB3 September 25, 2012 - Demographers study three conditions that affect a population’s size and structure: immigration, death rates, and birth rates which caused the Canadian population to age from the mid 1800’s to the present Immigration - Immigration played the smallest part in the aging of Canada’s population - Waves of immigration in the early 20 century brought new groups of young adults to Canada - These young people helped keep Canada’s population young at the start of this century - Immigration continued to add to Canada’s population until the start of the Great Depression - These immigrants changed the face of Canadian society - This same group of immigrants increased Canada’s older population as they aged - In 2001 52% of all immigrants aged 65 and over had arrived in Canada before 1961. Many older immigrants came to Canada during World War 2 and the first years after the war - More immigrants in the oldest age groups leave Canada than arrive. They likely return to their home country, probably to enjoy their traditional culture in their old age and to die in their homeland - Older people comprise only a small percentage of the total immigrant population admitted to Canada; they made up only between 2 and 4 percent of all immigrants and refugees between 1995 and 2004 - Nearly all immigrants aged 65 and over today came as family members of Canadian residents - In the period before 1961, most of Canada’s immigrants (almost 90%) came from the United Kingdom or Europe - The proportion of immigrants from Western and Northern Europe and the United States decreased by almost half while the proportion of immigrants from Asia rose more than two and a half times - By the early 1990’s, the largest portion of immigrants came from the developing countries of Asia, the Caribbean, South America, and Central America - Immigration has little effect on the aging of Canada’s population - Immigration does increase the diversity of Canadian society, and it creates new challenges for families, communities, and groups that serve older people Death Rates th - The deaththate is the number of deaths per 1000 people in a population. By the late 19 and early 20 centuries, death rates began to drop across the country - Life expectancy at birth rose from 41.9 years for men and 44.2 years for women born in 1851 to 60 years for men and 62.1 years for women born in 1931 - Life expectancy at age 65 had increased to 78 years for men and 78.7 years for women by 1931 - Life expectancy increased steadily for men and women of all ages between 1941 and 2001 - Infant mortality rates (the death rates of children less than one year old) decreased dramatically over the 20 century - Control of childhood disease, better parental care, and improved nutrition account for most of this change - From 1931 to 2003 in Canada, life expectancy at birth increased from 60 years to 77.4 years for men and from 62.1 years to 82.3 years for women - People in the oldest cohorts show some of the greatest improvements in life expectancy - Between 1921 and 2001 men aged 85 and over showed a 37% increase in life expectancy and women showed a 63% increase in life expectancy - As a result, between 1981 and 2005 the proportion of Canadians aged 75 to 84 in the population increased from 2.8% to 4.6% - Today, Canada along with Japan, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and the United States has some of the highest life expectancies in the world - In Canada, in 2001, life expectancy at birth was 77 years for males and 82 years for females Birth Rates - The birth rate is the number of births per 1000 women in a population. A decline in the birth rate primarily causes population aging - Canada began its demographic transition around 1850 as the birth rate decreased - The birth rate in Canada as a whole dropped by about 30% from 1851 to 1951 - This drop in the birth rate, more than any other demographic change, led to the aging of Canadian society Baby Boom and Baby Bust - The Baby Boom and Baby Bust account for the greatest changes in Canadian population from 1951 to the present - From 1946 to 1965, Canada went through a Baby Boom (an explosion in the fertility rate and the birth rate) - Fertility rate is defined as “the average number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she were to pass though all her childbearing years conforming to the age- specific fertility rates of a given year” - Between 1941 and 1961, the total fertility rate rose from 2.83 to 3.84 - The age-specific birth rate (the number of births in a given age group per 1000 women in that age group) nearly doubled for 15 to 19 year olds, going from 30.7 to 58.2 - Women averaged more than 3.5 children each at the height of the Baby Boom - The Baby Boom spanned a 20-year period - Canada was the loudest baby boom in the industrialized world - The Baby Boom can be traced to two conditions: o A good economy (people felt confident about the future) o A large number of immigrants (many of childbearing age) - The Baby Boom reversed not only a general trend of decreased fertility rates that had begun in th th the 19 century but also a century-long trend in population aging that began in the late 19 century - After 1965, Canada went into Baby Bust - The Baby Bust can be traced to two conditions: o The use of birth control o The increased number of women in the labour force - During the Baby Bust, the total fertility rate dropped from 3.84 in 1961 to 2.81 in 1966 and dropped further to 1.49 in 2000 - Canada’s low fertility rate today falls below the level (2.1) needed to replace the population - Low fertility led to a sharp drop in the number of young people in Canada - A medium-growth projection by Stats Canada estimates that the younger population will fall to 19 percent of the population in 2041, while the older population will grow to 25% of the population - This decrease in birth rate, especially the sharp drop since the 1960’s, sped the rate of population aging in Canada - Between 1961 and 2002, the population aged 65 and over rose by more than 5 percent, moving from 7.6 to 12.7 percent of Canada’s population - The older population will increase sharply again in the early decades of this century when the Baby Boom generation moves into old age Summary of Population Aging in Canada - Canada’s demographic transition took place from before 1850 to the present in three stages: o In the first stage, before 1850, Canada had both high death and high birth rates, and, in Ontario and the Maritimes, a high rate of immigration. These forces kept the average age of Canadians low o The second stage of the transition began after 1850 as major declines in birth and death rates occurred. These changes transformed Canada from a young nation (under 4 percent aged 65 and over) in the late 1800’s to an older nation (with about 7 percent of the population aged 65 and over) by 1950 o Today, in the third stage of the transition, Canada has low death rates, low birth rates, and an aging population The Aging of the Older Population - Genetics, a good environment, a healthy lifestyle, and good luck account for the long lives of elders - The oldest old (85 and over) population also makes up a larger share of the C
More Less

Related notes for HLTHAGE 1BB3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.