Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
McMaster (10,000)
HLTHAGE (100)
Chapter 5

HLTHAGE 1AA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Operating Model, Commodification, Language Delay


Department
Health, Aging and Society
Course Code
HLTHAGE 1AA3
Professor
Elena Neiterman
Chapter
5

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 3 pages of the document.
CHAPTER FIVE
Introduction:
-hierarchy can be observed along a number of different dimensions such as economic, educational,
gender, and social status variations, among others
-conflict theory perspective and social justice perspective say that hierarchical structure is indicative of
inequality
-there is a positive & consistent relationship between good health and location further up hierarchy
-people who have more wealth tend to be healthier, and people who have less wealth tend to have
poorer health
-the overall degree of equity or inequity within society affects the well-being of everyone within the
society, including both those at the top and those at the bottom of the income hierarchy
-materialist approach to the social determinants of health: this perspective states that human health
depends fundamentally on available, accessible, and good-quality nutritious food, clean water, good
transportation, employment, housing and essential components of life
-income is central to health in the materialist view and 2 aspects of this are important:
Income sufficiency or adequacy: for things such as the purchase of food, shelter, transportation,
and leisure activities
Income stability: so that the money is available consistently and predictably from month to
month and from year to year
-material circumstances can also influence health directly through assaults to the physical body (such as
spread of infections)
-poorer people are also more likely to cope by engaging in some behaviours that may have health
threatening results such as high carbohydrate and low protein diets and an absence of exercise
-neomaterialist approach: this perspective acknowledges the importance of a basic level of material
adequacy but then centres its attention on the significance of the relative distribution of material and
social goods in societies; once a certain degree of material adequacy has been reached, then equity and
perceived equity become essential to the overall health of a population
-life course approach to health outcomes overlaps with the previous three emphases but draws
attention to the fact that impoverishment, inequity, a lack of redistributive policies, social exclusion, and
negative social comparisons all are exacerbated when they occur to and among children and then, in
one way or another, continue throughout life
-pathway effects set children onto a course resulting from unhelpful or helpful early experiences
-latency effects refer to early developmental effects that may influence later life
-cumulative effects are the accumulation of disadvantage or advantage over a lifetime and include
combinations of both latency and pathway effects that lead to health and or disease in the adult
Political Explanations for Inequality and Poor Health:
-health inequities result from forces and decisions at the global and national political and economic
levels
An Operating Model for the Social Determinants of Health:
-inequity causes different life chances and experiences, as well as unequal access to fundamental social
resources such as food, recreation, satisfying work and adequate shelter
-the rates of sickness and death is different since there is unequal access for people who differ in, for
example, age, race, sex, income etc.
-differences in mortality and morbidity are related to political-economic systems at the level of the
nation-state as well as to national cultural differences
-there are cultural differences in the interpretation of symptoms and behaviours associated with health
and illness
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version