HLTHAGE 1AA3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Reductionism, Stethoscope, Social Forces

61 views3 pages
Chapter 9: The Social Construction of Scientific &Medical Knowledge & Medical Practice
Medical and Scientific Knowledge Historical and Cross-Cultural Context:
-Positivism: model of science upon which medicine is based; described by attributes such as objectivity,
precision, certainty, generalizability, quantification, replication, and causality
-a number of social theorists and researchers have demonstrated that beliefs regarding scientific
objectivity are problematic
-Kuhn (1962): described development of science and how the methods, assumptions and even the
subject of science are infused with cultural categories
-Freund and McGuire (1991): also agreed with Kuhn and said that the value assumptions of
contemporary medicine as mind-body dualism, physical reductionism, specific etiology, machine
metaphor, and regimen and control
-Mind-Body Dualism
Said to have begun with a philosopher named Descartes who argued the case for the separation
of the mind from the body
Foucault (1975) described the changes in the 18th and 19th centuries that allowed the physician to
view the patient’s body directly through the “clinical gaze” and not merely indirectly through the
patient’s verbal descriptions
Specific technical inventions such as the stethoscope gave physicians direct access to bodily
functions
-physical reductionism
Emphasizes the physically observable at the expense of other aspects of the individual such as the
mental, sensual and emotional
Disregards the social, political and economic causes of ill health
-the doctrine of specific etiology
Rene Dubos (1959) was the first to write about this
The notion that each disease is the result of a particular pathogen or malfunction is the primary
assumption of this view
Developed from the discoveries of 19th century researchers such as Koch and Pasteur who noted
the changes on the body due to microorganisms
-machine metaphor
Emphasizes discrete parts, such as organs and their interrelationships with other discrete parts
Resulting from this notion is the possibility of medical specialization and the removal and
replacement of parts of the body
-regimen and control
Outgrowth of machine metaphor
Involves the underlying assumption that the body is to be dealt with, fixed and continually
improved
Emphasis on control through such things as the correct number and spacing of checkups as well as
the use of early detection technologies reinforces this notion of the medically perfectible body
Medical Science and Medical Practice A gap in values:
-Canadian government and medical associations have conferences to bring together practitioners and
researchers, to inform practitioners of the latest scientific findings, to inform scientists of the practical
issues facing practitioners, and to work towards the development of timely, national standards of
practice
-the research to date has indicated that the conferences have little or no effect on medical practice
-recently, the idea of evidence-based medicine has been influential in medical practice
-sometimes evidence based medicine is not reliable because of the fact that the published research may
not be representative of the best research
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 3 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Medical and scientific knowledge historical and cross-cultural context: Positivism: model of science upon which medicine is based; described by attributes such as objectivity, precision, certainty, generalizability, quantification, replication, and causality. A number of social theorists and researchers have demonstrated that beliefs regarding scientific objectivity are problematic. Kuhn (1962): described development of science and how the methods, assumptions and even the subject of science are infused with cultural categories. Freund and mcguire (1991): also agreed with kuhn and said that the value assumptions of contemporary medicine as mind-body dualism, physical reductionism, specific etiology, machine metaphor, and regimen and control. Said to have begun with a philosopher named descartes who argued the case for the separation of the mind from the body. Foucault (1975) described the changes in the 18th and 19th centuries that allowed the physician to view the patient"s body directly through the clinical gaze and not merely indirectly through the patient"s verbal descriptions.

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes