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HLTHAGE 1BB3 Chapter Notes -European Pilchard, Supercentenarian

Health, Aging and Society
Course Code
Jill Leblanc

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Health and Aging 1BB3: Health and Illness May 20, 2014
What are the patterns of health and illness in older Canadians?
‘Normal Aging” process in Canada
oBiology and genetics
Consider quality of life
oCoping and Lifestyle changes
Model of ‘Successful Aging’
Longevity Quiz (scored age 90.8)
oPeople who are 110 years or older
Largest causes of death for 65 to 79 years
oCirculatory diseases
oRespiratory diseases
oEndocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders
oDigestive system diseases
oAll other conditions
80+ years old
oCirculatory diseases
oRespiratory diseases
oMental and behavioural disorders
oNervous system diseases
oAll other
New Patterns of Health and Illness
Epidemiological transition
oShift in disease patterns
oChronic health problems
oIn Canada, few people are untouched by chronic disease or injuries: three
out of five people over the age of twenty live with one of these diseases
and four out of five are at risk
Diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis – main three things experienced
Seniors and Chronic Health Problems
oMany seniors are affected by a combination of chronic conditions
Gender differences – “women get sick, but men die,” – Gee and Kimba
oMasculinity with men
oWomen need to care about their bodies because they have children, they
are used to going to the doctor for their kids
oWomen encourage males to go
Health Seniors Status
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Aboriginals most vulnerable
In 2012, 44% of seniors reported their health to be very good or excellent
89% reported satisfied or very satisfied with life
What’s normal aging?
The Effects of Aging on Body Systems
Musculoskeletal system – this is weakened; brittle bones, don’t absorb calcium as
well, easily break bones, shrink in height
Sensory Changes
oTaste, smell and touch – this is why it is harder to sometimes serve meals
to elderly people
oHearing problems – more common in men, most likely because
occupation patterns, usually between 30-40 years old it gradually is lost.
Usually because of the cells on the outer part of the eardrum
oVision; glaucoma - often a build up of fluid behind the eye, can cause
blindness, cataracts, diabetes, etc
Living With Macular Degeneration
Not as common, but almost always devastating effects
100 000 of 1 million go partially blind
Interferes with sensorial vision, starts out with blurring,
then grey blotting, still have peripheral vision
Functional Capacity
Functional capacity is an indicator of ones ability to carry out everyday tasks
oFunctional disability refers to the limitation on ones ability to perform
normal daily activities due to illness or injury
oThe older you get, the more this is often impacted
oBy 85 or older, one has usually experienced some kind of limitation
oPerforming the activities of daily living (ADLs)
Bathing, eating, etc.
oPerforming instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
Paying bills, gardening, etc.
Potential Consequence of Aging: Frailty
Characterized by muscle weakness, especially in the legs, fatigue, and diminished
energy reserves, decreased physical and social activity, loss of weight and a slow
and unsteady gait
Increased risk of falling, social isolation, dependence and institutionalization, and
nearness to death
Falls are the leading cause of injury hospitalizations for seniors across the country
Health and Aging 1BB3: Health and Illness May 20, 2014
Falls can lead to serious injuries, reduced mobility, nursing home, admission and
Common traits of blue zones – where people live to be 100
oSupplements – yes or no?
oMarathons or yoga?
oWhat defines longevity?
Myth: I can try hard and live to 100
We are programmed for procreative success – have
children, live till our kids do and that's it
Myth: We can slow aging
We cannot slow aging
The capacity of the human body is about 90 years
This country’s life expectancy is 78
Due to our lifestyles and environments – where do we find
those missing 12 years?
Blue zone: Italy, an island, Sardina
Diet is plant based, foods to carry into the fields, cheese from grass fed animals
Wine is more specific
They treat elderly people as more important, the more older you great, the higher
equity you have
Oldest male population
Blue zone: Tokyo island,
Oldest female population
Usually pass away in sleep, often after sex
Much lower rate of cancers, cardio diseases
Colourful plant based diets, lots of tofu
Strategies to keep them from overeating
oServe from counter and bring to table
oServe on smaller plates
oA small prayer said to remember to stop eating at 80% full
Isolation kills – the less friends, the less you live
oHere on the island, you stay with your friends always because they are
who you grow up with
There is no word for retirement, but rather a word for what you wake up for in the
morning, what reason – they all knew and all had a reason to wake up
Americas “Blue zone”
Seventh day Adventist community on the West
Habits that help them:
o Diet from bible – legumes, seeds, etc.