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Danny M.Pincivero

CHAPTER 19 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Overview Function: transport mechanism for human body 1) Nutrients: macronutrients and micronutrients 2) Gases: oxygen and carbon dioxide 3) End products of metabolism (including hormones) Other functions: immunity, tissue repair, body temperature Components of CV system: 1) Heart: central pump • Cardiac muscle: energy generator and consumer ( fuel required) • Active using E to generate force. Mechanical E transferred to fluid in CV system. 2) Blood vessels (vasculature) • extensions of heart (cardiac tissue) throughout the body • one very large tissue 3) Blood • fluid contained within the CV system • Constantly moving because heart is generating that E CHAPTER 19 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD 19.1 - Functions of Blood 1) Transport of gases, nutrients and waste products • Oxygen, CO , m2tabolic end products • Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins • Urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia • Bilirubin - breakdown product of red blood cells (removed by the CV) • Lactic acid 2) Transport of processed molecules • Vitamin D precursor from skin to liver and kidneys • Many substances are produced in one part of the body and transported in the blood to another part, where they are modified. Vit D produced in skin and transported by the blood to liver and then to the kidneys for processing active Vit D. The blood then transports active Vit D to small intestine, where it promotes calcium uptake. 3) Transport of regulatory molecules • Hormones (from endocrine glands to rest of body) • Enzymes that regulate processes 4) Regulation of pH and osmosis • Normal pH between 7.35 and 7.45 (blood buffers PH increases) + • E.g. intense exercise, acidic environment….blood “buffers” H • Osmotic composition of blood is also critical for maintaining normal fluid and ion balance 5) Maintenance of body temperature • Heat transfer from muscle tissue to blood to skin to external environment (exercise and ATP) • From inferior of body to body surface where heat is released 6) Protection against foreign substances • Antibodies produced……response to infection. • Certain cells in blood provide protection from pathogens and foreign substances 7) Clot formation • “Built-in” mechanism for self-repair of damaged tissues (blood vessels) • Rupture of vascular components repaired 19.2 - Composition of blood 19.3 - Plasma • Liquid part of blood (pale yellow in color) – Colloid: plasma is a colloid liquid containing suspended substances that do not settle out of sol’n. Most of the suspended substances are plasma proteins. – 91% H O 2 – 9% - proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products, gases, regulatory substances • Proteins: (most of plasma proteins are produced by the liver or blood cells) – Albumins: most abundant, 58% • Osmotic pressure, transports fatty acids, thyroid hormones • Regulating the movement of water b/w the tissues and blood, b/c it doesn’t easily pass from the blood to tissue it plays an important role in in maintaining blood colloid osmotic pressure. – Globulins: 38% of plasma proteins, transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, ions, antibodies (globulins provide protection against microorganisms) – Fibrinogen: 4% of plasma proteins, blood clotting Serum: is plasma w/o the clotting factors. 19.4 - Formed elements Red blood cells (erythrocytes): 95% of formed elements • Biconcave discs, no nucleus or mitochondria • Contain hemoglobin (protein) transports oxygen and carbon dioxide • Converts CO an2 H O to2H CO (C2rbon3c Anhydrase) White blood cells (leukocytes): 5% of formed elements • Granulocytes: large granules; have multi-lobed nuclei. – Three distinctive types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils • Agranulocytes: small granules and nuclei that are not lobed. – Two distinctive types: lymphocytes and monocytes Platelets (thrombocytes) • Cell fragment. Form platelet plugs, release chemicals necessary for blood clotting 19.2 page 650 Formed Elements of the Blood Notes: • Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis: Process of blood cell production. Post-birth: red bone marrow, lymphatic system (helping produce lymphocytes) • Stem cells: All formed elements derived from single population (hemocytoblast) • Proerythroblasts: red blood cells Precursors cells capable of dividing to produce daughter cells: • Myeloblasts: basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils 1) Proerythroblasts • Lymphoblasts: lymphocytes 2) Myeloblasts • Monoblasts: monocytes 3) Lymphoblasts • Megakaryoblasts: platelets 4) Monoblasts Red blood cells • 5.4 million/microlitre (adult men) – more than women • 4.8 million/microlitre (adult women) Components • 1/3 Hemoglobin • 2/3 Lipids, ATP, enzyme carbonic anhydrase Transport functions: Oxygen: 1) 98.5% bound to hemoglobin 2) 1.5% dissolved in plasma (regulates blood cells) Carbon dioxide: 1) 23% bound to hemoglobin 2) 7% dissolved in plasma + 3) 70% as bicarbonate (when CO2 and water combined H and bicarbonate ions) H : generated from carbonic anhydrase reaction Red blood cells (cont'd) Hemoglobin: • Quartenary protein structure (4 components)…..1 O /heme…….2 O /hemoglobin 2 • oxyhemoglobin (O2 bound to all 4 hemes, bright red in color) • deoxyhemoglobin (hemoglobin not saturated fully with O2, darker red colored, O2 released somewhere in body like muscle cells) • carbaminohemoglobin ( hemoglobin molecule with C02 bound to it) • Carboxyhemoglobin- when Carbon monoxide binds strongly to the iron of hemoglobin. • Hemolytic anemia? – low RBC due to rupture – autoimmune – enzyme deficiency – free radical accumulation Erythropoiesis (process by which new RBC’s are produced) • Production of red blood cells • 2.5 million RBC’s degenerated per second • 25 trillion RBC’s in circulation • RBCs last 120 days in circulation • Erythropoietin: hormone (prod
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