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Chapter 1-4

Kin 1E03 Textbook Notes - Chapter 1 -4.docx

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Tim Lee

1E03Motor Learning and PerformanceTextbook NotesChapter 1Getting Started Motor skill a skill for which the primary determinant of success is the quality of the movement that the performer produces o Should be distinguishable along a number of dimensions or on the basis of a variety of prominent characteristics o In terms of the proficiency a person demonstrates when performing a movement eg Michael Jordan shooting a basketballSkills Classified by Task OrganizationDiscrete skill a skill or task that is organized in such a way that the action is usually brief and has a welldefined beginning and end o Eg throwingkicking a ball firing a rifle cashing a fishing lure throwing a dart snapping fingers o Prominent in many sports and games that involve throwing kicking hitting jumping catchingSerial skill a type of skill organization that is characterized by several discrete actions connected together in a sequence often with the order of the actions being crucial to performance success o Eg gymnastic routines maneuvering during downhill skiing hammering a nail taping an ankle brushing teeth o Usually require a longer time to produceo Each element in the sequences retains a discrete beginning and end o Beginners initially focus on each element separately in the learning of a serial skill can later on combine the elements to form a unified sequenceContinuous skill a skill organized in such a way that the action unfolds without a recognizable beginning and end in an ongoing and often repetitive fashion o Eg swimming running skating cycling rope skipping rowing inline skating o The performer or some environmental barriermarker determines the beginning and ending points of the movementSkills Classified by the Relative Importance of Motor and Cognitive ElementsCognitive skill a skill for which the primary determinant of success is the quality of the performers decisions regarding what to do o Depends more on the strategy dictating the movement than on the production of the movement itself o Eg playing a game of chess more strategy of where to move the pieces o A cognitive skill emphasizes knowing what to do whereas a motor skill mainly emphasizes how to do itMotor skills and cognitive skills are on opposite sides of the continuum whereas most skills lie in between o More effective way of classifying skills is to consider the degree to which cognitivemotor elements contributeSkills Classified by Level of Environmental PredictabilityOpen skill a skill performed in an environment that is unpredictable or in motion and that requires performers to adapt their movement in response to dynamic properties of the environment o Eg driving in traffic playing soccer wrestling catching a butterfly o Wrestlers have difficulties effectively predicting their opponents movements and the best way to respondClosed skill a skill performed in an environment that is predictable or stationary and that allows performers to pan their movements in advance o Eg performing on a balance bean routine driving down a vacant road typing cutting vegetablesPurely open and purely closed skills are located on opposite ends of the continuum use open and closedskill system o Emphasizes the predictability of environmental demands placed on the performer o Closer to closedskills the environment is stable and waiting to be acted uponPerformers can evaluate the environment in advance organize their movements without feeling rushed and carry out the action wout any need for sudden adjustments o For open skills performers must be able to read the environment to adjust their movements often in a short amount of timeCapabilities characteristics of individuals that are subject to change as a result of practice and that underlie the performance of various tasks o All of the classification systems should be considered together when you are attempting to determine the demands of a particular skillevaluating capabilities of a person performing the skill Gentiles TwoDimensional Classification SystemSystem that considers both the requirements of the action and the demands of the environment o Possible requirements of the action consist of body transport and object manipulation o Environmental demands include the degree to which the environment is stationary or in motion regulatory variability and the extent to which the environment changes from one performance attempt to the next context variabilityRegulatory variability for closed skills is generally minimalFor open skills regulatory variability is considerable Action requirementsNeither body Object Body transport Both body transport transport nor object manipulation only and object manipulation only manipulationNeither regulatory Maintaining Playing the flute Walking on a Walking on a citynor context variability standing balance city sidewalk sidewalk whilepulling a wagonContext variability Using sign Chopping wood Tenpin Twirling streamers inonly language bowling rhythmic gymnasticsRegulatory variability Standing on a Standing in Walking on a Dribbling a socceronly moving escalator place while moving ball while in motion Environmental dribbling a escalator without a defender demands basketball Both regulator and Balancing on Playing a video Line dancing Dribbling a soccer context variability alternate feet while game with ball against a on a moving joystick defender escalator Performance Proficiency Perspective Characteristics of Skill PerformanceER Guthrieskill proficiency consists in the ability to bring about some end result w maximum certainty and minimum outlay of energy or of time and energySkilled movements movements performed with a desired environmental goal in mind o Eg holding a handstand eating a meal using a prosthetic hand o Movements having no particular environmental goal tapping fingers are not considered skilled o Guthries qualities of skilled movementsmaximum certainty minimum energy expenditure minimum movement timeMaximum Certainty of Goal AchievementBeing skilled implies that a person is able to meet the end result w maximum certainty o High degree of certainty on demand w consistencyMinimum Energy ExpenditureMinimization and conservation of energy required for performance o Reducing or eliminating unwanted or unnecessary movement o Implies that skilled performers are able to organize their actions in a way that reduces the mental demands of the task o Performers who are able to produce their movements automatically can also direct their thoughts to other features of the activityMinimum Movement TimeAchieving the goal in the shortest time possible o Can be a problem in some situationscould lead to sloppy performance or errors o Humans seem to have the capability to swap speed for accuracy depending on the task requirements
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