Textbook Notes (368,544)
Canada (161,960)
Kinesiology (156)
Tim Lee (11)
Chapter 1

Kin - Motor Chapter 1 Textbook Notes.docx

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Tim Lee

Chapter 1 Textbook Notes Task Perspectives: Skill Classification - 3 characteristics: o the way the task is organized o the relative importance of motor and cognitive elements o the level of environmental predictability during performance Skill Classified by Task Organization - discrete skill: a defined beginning and end; often very brief in duration o eg. Throwing and kicking a ball, firing a gun, casting a fishing lure o prominent in many sports and games involving hitting, catching, throwing etc. - serial skills: discrete skills strung together to form more complicated actions o eg. Shifting gears of a manual car, gymnastics routines, maneuvering around sequence of gates in a ski race o require somewhat longer time to produce o each element in the sequence retains a discrete beginning and end o beginners focus on elements separately, later combine to form unified sequence - continuous skills: movements with no definable beginning or end o repetitive or rhythmic, often lasting many minutes o swimming, running, skating, cycling. steering o performer or environmental barrier or marker determines beginning / end pts Skill Classified by Relative Importance of Motor and Cognitive Elements - cognitive skill : success depends more on strategy; primary determinant of success is the quality of the performer’s decision regarding knowing what to do - motor skill: primary determinant of movement success is quality of movement itself rather than perceptual or decision-making aspect of task - almost all movements are a mix of both… new skills are more cognitive, later more motor Skill Classified by Level of Environmental Predictability - open skills: performed in an environment that is variable and unpredictable o eg. Playing soccer, wrestling, catching a butterfly o must read the environment and adjust movements - closed skills: performed in an environment that is stable and predictable o eg. Gymnastics, typing, cutting vegetables o performers can evaluate the environment in advance, organize movements without feeling rushed, carry out action with no need for sudden adjustments - capabilities: characteristics of individuals subject to change as a result of practice and underlie the performance of various tasks Characteristics of Skill Performance - features proposed by psychologist E.R. Guthrie (1952) - skilled movements have a desired goal in mind .. skill qualities: - skilled implies a person can meet performance goal with maximum certainty - consistency - minimize energy expenditure by reducing or eliminating unwanted or unnecessary movement o minimization and occasionally conservation of energy required for performance o eg. Runners who hold efficient pace, skilled wrestler saving strength til last minute o able to organize actions in a way that reduces mental demands on task o survival benefit, favouring those individuals who can perform with minimum energy o can direct thoughts to other features of activity o also important for those with disabilities - minimum movement time o eg. Swimming, sprinters, cyclists o piece workers in a factory ear more pay if they increase # units assembled in less time o can be a problem: football running back who runs too fast for blockers to clear way o performing too quickly 
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