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McMaster University
Life Sciences

1 WHAT IS NUTRITION? Latin derivative, nutritio, nourish • “All the processes involved in the taking in and utilization of food substances by which growth, repair, and maintenance of activities in the body as a whole or in any of its parts are accomplished. Includes ingestion, digestion, absorption, and metabolism (assimilation). Some nutrients are capable of being stored by the body in various forms and drawn upon when the food intake is not sufficient.” Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary - don’t need to memorize - What is food? • “Any material that provides the nutritive requirements of an organism to maintain growth and physical well being.” Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary Is food important?......obviously, YES. - some foods remodel at a faster rate and require some nutrients What role does food play in the world? Social welfare – economic preosperity Economic prosperity and security --– food stamtps if htey havelow income LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 2 Geopolitics – food availability Armed conflict LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 3 FOOD, SCIENCE AND WORLD PEACE Norman Borlaug (Mar 25, 1914 – Sept 12, 2009) 1970 Nobel Peace Prize • Invented a new strain of wheat (dwarf) which was disease resistant and generated high yields to combat world hunger. • Exported the new strain to Central America, Middle East, India, Pakistan, Africa, he took his invention and shred it with thei woreld, wasn’t selfish -gentically modified food Hybrids that are cross hibernated -hybernated are not as healthy for us - 1 pic cross pollinated, countires that have high winds will break off a - WHY ISNUTRITION IMPORTANT? Nutrition can prevent disease. a. Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency: scurvy (affected sailers, cure to bring citrous fruits like limes that had vitamin C , goiter, rickets (caused by certain vitamins and minerals ) b. Diseases influenced by nutrition : chronic diseases (sat fat , trans fat LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 4 ,cholestorl levels, ) such as heart disease ( cardiovasiular disease, blood vessels become diseased ) c. Diseases in which nutrition plays a role : osteoarthritis, osteoporosis (affect bones, joints) (longer development) -it depends, -certain disease cause by nutrient deficiceny - NUTRITION AND OBESITY IN CANA- graph illustrates change in obesity rates -to age 75 -Huge increase in obesity rates -casue of it , there isn’t just one cause theres a lot of causes -in 1970’s food ocmapnies introduced new line of food which was-fat free food, low fat (dramatically reduced calories ) but obesity increased , therefore , chloric intake - food that we eat E IN(kcal) = E out (conservation of energy) -kcal mearue of enrgy we take in -when we are exercising combustion of erngy is at a diff rate EIN (kcal) = E out + E stored we store carbohydrates, we sort of store proteins we use it for , we store fat ** if we don’t incrase comb of erngy reduction in erngy out therefore we store a lot of fat - we don’t have a limitation for storing fat Why do we eat the way we do?......we’re influenced -inslulin and leptin 2 hormiens function nto reglate our hunger -we eat becawse LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 5 1) Physiological hunger-- 2) Sensory stimulation • Food flavour: taste and smell • Texture: “feel” of food – crisp, chewy, smooth o food companies know we want texture 3) Personal preferences 4) Habits: 3 meals/day 5) Ethnic heritage or tradition -rhino beetle rich source of vit A and protein -common food in certain countries in world -our brains haven’t developed to eating something like this here -what you were exposed to • One of the strongest influences on our eating habits/patterns a) Cultural beliefs and traditions b) Religion – established rules -religion has many rules to hwat we cant and can eat 6. Social interactions -like family chrisios and talk about things while eating -food and social interatctions, use meal to go out -use food to gage social life 7. Availability, convenience, and economy LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 6 -sales , so buy more -certain countires have inablility to grow some food so it influcnes what we eat 8. Positive and negative associations: commercial advertising - 9. Emotions: comfort….instinctive for newborns - older we are more conscious , ex) eat when sad • Food cravings • Beta-endorphins (popular theory for feelings of pleasure) • Pica: craving for non-food items (dirt, clay)…pregnancy (pregnant women crave for strange food , changes in food preferences ) 10. Values -moral values 11. Body weight and image - 12. Nutrition and health benefits SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS Global market value, 2009: US$4.6 billion (does not include sports drinks, United States largest consumer, two-thirds in world) 1) Sports drinks • Provides carbohydrates and fluid…..enhance exercise performance and recovery. • In Canada 2009, valued at $423 million LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 7 • Gatorade ( it dpends can be good or bad) , ur getting calories) and Powerade 2) Sports food • Typically found in a bar format –protien bars • Nutrient dense (small volume ) and leverages the functional food proposition; that is, it provides health benefits that go beyond their nutritional value • Whey (from barrie, milk product) and soy are dominant ingredients • In Canada, 2009, sales at $85.4 million ( from protein bars) 3) Sports supplements Objectives • Build muscle tissue, increase energy stores/utilization, decrease body fat. Forms: • Tablets, powders, ready-to-drink Typical ingredients: • Soy protein, whey protein, creatine, L-carnitine (decrases body fat by burning it , its an amino acid that helps our cell to conj fatty acids ) and amino acids (does not include sports drinks) Market share: Canada, 2009: • $114 million LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 8 Nutrient • Any substance in food that the body can use to obtain energy, synthesize tissues, or regulate physiological/physical functions. -alcohol is made from food, but its not food its a drug , has very little nutiritnts, helps itself , carries calories but not in form of macronutirent but is in form of ethanol , which can easily convert ofat -nutiritn is something our body uses ot help the body Essential nutrient • A substance that must be ingested because the body cannot make it or adequate amounts of it. • - not as ijmp • Don’t have the physcology to make it so we have to injest it • Our body can make certain amino acids or fatty acids for structure but not all Macronutrient • A nutrient that is needed in relatively large amounts in the diet (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) (nutritns we ahve to take in large amounts) • - Micronutrient • A nutrient that is needed in relatively small amounts in the diet (vitamins and minerals). (need in small amounts not in equation Ein= E out ) , don’t have kcal to them but enables us to get nutriestns form macronutirtns - energy in micronturient fuels cells , vitamins and minerals help break up and utilize fats proteins Organic • In chemistry, any compound that contains carbon, except carbon oxides. LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 9 Inorganic • Any substance that does not contain carbon, except certain simple carbon compounds (carbon dioxide). “Organic” food • Food growth without use of fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics, etc. • -food preparation prcoesse • “Organic” food • Must meet standards of the Canadian Organic Products Regulations. • Crop production • Livestock production • Processing • Cleaners, disinfectants, sanitizers • Health care products Example: Soil and crop nutrition • Over 100 different substances regulated “Bone meal: (crushed up bones that provide soil and calcium) no nervous system tissue because it transports diseae Permitted only if guaranteed free of specified risk materials including the skull, brain, trigeminal ganglia (nerves attached to the brain), eyes, tonsils, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (nerves attached to the spinal cord) of cattle aged 30 months or older; and the distal ileum (portion of the small intestine) of cattle of all ages.” -a lot of money has to be LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 10 Antioxidant • A nutrient that that combines with or neutralizes free radicals, preventing oxidative damage to the cell. • Vitamin C,E, selenium ( neutralize O , by removing , vitamin c will donate to 2 vit E, selenium will neutralize by removing that electron • O 2 super oxide anion , is highly reactive , this molecule will bind to almost anything, will bind to DNA, cell membrane, Red blood Cells (RBC), . When it binds it disturbs a phsyclogical process, it generates an immune response, can eads to certain kinds to cancers • We use oxygen atom for cellular respiration, it • To increase free radicals , exercise • Whe nyou exercise you use more o, metabolic incrase, burns fuels at rfaster rate, Oxide goe up a lot , O 2- Phytochemicals • “plant chemical”. • Complex chemicals that vary from plant to plant • Example: orange has over 170 distinct phytochemicals • Function: fight bacteria and viruses, UV lights, free radicals • Health benefits: cancer prevention (free radical and hormone neutralizing), lowering of LDL cholesterol LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 11 MACRONUTRIENTS 1) Carbohydrates • “hydrate of carbon” • Most cells rly on carbogydrates, • Red blood cells need carbogydates, neurons and brains as well Purpose: supplies energy to cells Storage: liver and skeletal muscle ( we cant store carbs endlessless) Example food sources: simple (ex sugars) or complex CHO (takes longer for carbohydtaes to break down Problems/diseases specific to CHO: diabetes mellitus (inability of body to regulate circulate blood glucose ) 2) Lipids • Fats, oils, cholesterol, phospholipids (inject them in our body) , larger moellcules, if oyou exercise at high rate, don’t have energy to brek, if only ex at low rate, fat out and cirualte the and hten use as primary energy, harder to break lipids down than carbs) Purpose: 1) Building block of phospholipids and glycolipids 2) Protein modification by attaching to fatty acids ( Lipo proteins 3) Fuel ( lipids fuel twice the amount of energy than carbs) *weid loss should be , should be used as fuel source to get rid of it , so high intense exercising 4) Derivatives serve as hormones and intracellular mess
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