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Life Science 2DD3 - textbook & Lecture notes.docx

Life Sciences
Course Code
Rashid Khan

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Life Science 2D03 - Textbook Notes 9/7/2013 8:27:00 AM
-Animals intricate part of society many humans work with some animals
such as cattle‟s, chickens, turkeys, hogs, and sheep.
People manage animal behavior to accomplish a task.
-Animals are also resourceful for research and medicinal purposes
Helps researchers understand more about sensory, motor and
cognitive functioning.
For example: behavioral changes reflect effects of neurochemical
agents, neurotoxins or hormonal changes (Animal tests can
interpret results for humans)
-Animals also used for entertainment purposes (zoo, circus, movies, etc.)
Recognizing and Defining Behavior
- Animal Behavior
Any internally coordinated, externally visible patterns of behavior
that responds to changing external or internal conditions
-Internally Coordinated
Refers to internal information processing (such as actions of
o Internal actions are controlled (such as giraffes mating
leading to aggressive behavior).
-Externally Visible
Refers to patterns that we can observe and measure
Physical aspects that can be externally observed and measured
such as changes in behavior in specific animals during certain times
of the day, temperature, etc. (ex: desert lizards moving from the
top of a hot rock to underneath it to physically reduce body
temperature because as ectotherms they are internally unable to
automatically do it).
(Internal aspects are not accounted like heart rate of lizard)
Measuring Behavior: Elephant Ethograms
-Behaviors must be measurable and such processes begin with a completion
of an Ethogram
Formal description or inventory of animal‟s behaviors (Definition)
It lists discrete behaviors that an animal exhibits
Researchers can measure

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o Frequency, duration, rate, intensity of behavior
Usually behaviors that occur over a period of time is recorded
This helps researchers quantify total and relative time animals
engaged in each behavior
The overall time budget records total time and relative frequency
of each behavior.
The Scientific Method Formalized Way of Knowing About the New
-Process of Science
Observing events, organizing knowledge, and providing
explanations through the formulation and testing of hypotheses
Hypotheses are explanations that make predictions that can be
tested. Scientists begin with formulating questions into hypotheses.
Less debate is brought about usually because these tests can be
repeated by other scientists
Scientific Method
The scientific method is a formalized process that involves the
testing of hypotheses
It begins with an observation of a single event or pattern that
requires an explanation which forms the basis of a research
o This a brief statement which we would like to understand
Next Step …
Formulation of research hypotheses (an educated guess)
-Research Hypotheses
An explanation based on assumptions that produces a testable
Evaluated using two statistical hypotheses that reflect two possible
o Alternate Hypothesis or Ha
The observation does have a significant effect
o Null Hypothesis or Ho
The possible outcome does not have a significant effect
Last Step …

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-Evaluate the research hypothesis by testing the prediction of the null
One way to do this is … Make new observations by collecting data
from many different resources (example: yards for robins example)
o With this data, you can test the prediction of the null
-When you fail a hypothesis you develop a new research hypothesis to
explain the original observation
Correlation and Causality
The collected data represent a correlation between the two
variables measured (they co-vary or vary together predictably)
Correlation does not demonstrate causality (even if they are
correlated) therefore further testing is necessary for hypothesis
o And researchers have to rule out plausible alternative
Hypotheses & Theories
-Scientific Theories
Hypotheses that make many predictions, have been tested many
times by many different scientists and have not been rejected(DEF)
They explain various phenomena which are all supported by
observations & experimental testing
o Examples: cell theory of living organisms & germ theory of
-Social Sciences & The Natural Sciences
-Social scientists create scientific theories and test their hypotheses using
the scientific method to study human behavior and societies
Methodology includes: collecting data (surveys, questionnaires, and
public opinion polls) & conducting experiments to obtain information
about human values, perception & behavior
-Two ways to study human behavior
Indirectly (through the study of animals)
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