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Chapter 1

Chapter 1- An Overview of Nutrition.docx

Life Sciences
Course Code
Danny M.Pincivero

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Chapter 1: An Overview of Nutrition
Food Choices
- Personal preference
Widely shared preferences: sweet and salty
Liking high-fat foods
Hormones of pregnancy
- Habit
- Ethnic heritage or tradition
- Social interactions
- Availability, convenience, and economy
- Positive and negative associations
- Emotions
- Values
- Body weight and images
- Nutrition and health benefits
Nutrients in Foods and in the Body
- Nutrient composition of foods
Water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals
- Nutrient composition of the body
Made of materials similar to those found in foods
Water 60%
Fat 13-21% for young men, 23-31% for young women
- Chemical composition of nutrients
The simplest of the nutrients are the minerals
Minerals and water are chemically inorganic nutrients
- Essential nutrients
Nutrients that foods must supply are essential nutrients
The Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein
- Carbohydrate, fat and protein can be used to provide energy
- Energy measured in kCalories:
- To convert kcalories to kilojoules, multiply by 4.2; to convert kilojoules to
kcalories, multiply by 0.24
- To calculate the energy available forma food, multiply the number of grams of
carbohydrate, protein, and fat by 4, 4, and 9 respectively
- Energy from foods
Because fat provides more energy per gram, it has a greater energy density
than either carbohydrate or protein
Alcohol is 7 kilocalories per gram
- Energy in the body
Bonds between the nutrient’s atoms break. As the bonds break, they
release energy
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If the body does not use these nutrients to fuel its current activities, it
converts them into storage compounds to be used between meals and
overnight when energy supplies run low
- Other roles of energy-yielding nutrients
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins provide the raw materials for building the
body’s tissues and regulating its many activities
The Non-Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
- Do not directly yield energy, but support the production of energy from the three
energy-yielding nutrients
- The vitamins
Facilitate the release of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein and
participate in numerous other activities throughout the body
Vulnerable to destruction by heat, light, and chemical agents
- The minerals
Because minerals are inorganic, they are indestructible and need not be
handled with the special care that vitamins require
- Water
Provides the environment in which nearly all the bodys activities are
Participates in many metabolic reactions and supplies the medium for
transporting vital materials to cells and carrying waste products away from
The Science of Nutrition
- The science of nutrition is the study of the nutrients and other substances in foods
and the body’s handling of them
Conducting Research
- Quantitative research
1. Observation and question
2. Hypothesis and prediction
3. Experiment
4. Results and interpretations
a) Hypothesis supported
I. Theory
II. New observations and questions
III. Observation and question
b) Hypothesis not supported
I. New observations and questions
II. Observation and question
- Controls
In sorting subjects into two groups, researchers must ensure that each
person has an equal chance of being assigned to either the experimental
group or the control group
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