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Chapter 2

LINGUIST 1Z03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Sibilant, Soft Palate, Coronal Consonant


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINGUIST 1Z03
Professor
Karen Tucker
Chapter
2

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1Z03 Chapter 02: The Sounds of Language
Karen Tucker
Textbook
Chapter 2: Phonetics, The Sounds of Language
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Articulatory Phonetics - analyzing physiological mechanisms of speech production
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Acoustic Phonetics - measuring and analyzing physical properties of sound waves produced
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Trachea ( windpipe)
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Larynx/Voice box/Adam’s apple -box like structure made of cartilage and muscle
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2.8 Suprasegmentals
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All phones have inherent suprasegmental or prosodic properties
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Tone and intonation
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Loudness
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Length
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Pitch (low, high), accomplished by controlling tension of vocal folds and amount of air that passes through the
glottis. Tensed vocal folds and greater air pressure results in higher pitch on vowels and consonants
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Tone
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Tone language - differences in word meaning are signalled by differences in pitch
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Register Tones - level tones that signal meaning differences
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Two or three register tones are normal in most of the world’s register tone languages
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Contour tones - moving pitches that signal meaning differences
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Tone can sometimes have a grammatical function
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Intonation
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Intonation - Pitch movement in spoken utterances not related to differences in word meaning
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Terminal intonation contour - Falling pitch at the end of a sentence
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Heard in non final forms in lists and telephone numbers
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Non-terminal intonation contour - often signals incompleteness
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Questions have final rising intonations , to indicate that a conversational exchange is not finished
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Some English interrogative contain question words do not have rising intonation
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John said William is brillant
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John said, “William is brilliant.”
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“John,” said William, “is brilliant.”
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Punctuation marks can indicate intonation patterns
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Tone and intonation are not mutually exclusive
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Downdrift - where each high tone is lower than the preceding high tone, but higher than the low tone that
immediately precedes it
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Length
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Some vowels and consonants have articulation that take longer
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Indicated in phonetic transcription by IPA style colon or :
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Stress
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Some vowels are perceived as more prominent than others (e.g banana)
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Stress is the combined effects of pitch loudness and length
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English stressed vowels are higher in pitch, longer, louder
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Tone languages do not change pitch level or tone, usually it is marked by exaggerating vowel length
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Marking stress in phonetic transcription usually [‘] over the primary stress and [`] over the secondary stress,
not the same as diacritics to mark tone in tone languages
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Stress can also be marked by placing numbers above the stressed vowels, usually 1 for a primary stress and 2
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2: Phonetics, The Sounds of Language
October 5, 2017
2:59 PM
Class Notes Page 1
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