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Chapter 4

LINGUIST 1Z03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Phonology, Allophone, Phoneme


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINGUIST 1Z03
Professor
Karen Tucker
Chapter
4

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1Z03 Chapter 04: Representation of Phonemes
Karen Tucker
Textbook
It is impossible to remove all variation from our speech, as there is inevitable variation in the
physiological mechanics and physical conditions of our environment
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Systematic variation of pronunciation of the same word as a function of the phonological
context (e.g Right! Is an unreleased t, but Right on! The t acts as a flap), (e.g pronunciation of
ed as [t] or [d] depending on preceding segment
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Allophonic variation - distinction through linguistic context, stylistic variation
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Neutralization - different underlying sounds corresponding to the same sound on the surface
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Variation due to style, or degree of formality of speech situation
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Stylistic Variants - possible values of a phonological variable, that can be seen in different
groups of speakers
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Variation in phonological context, called allophones
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Allophones can be seen in different segment groups or in different structural positions such as
the coda or the onset of the syllable
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Allophonic variation differs in different languages
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When there are segmental differences, they are contrastive, and have minimal pairs
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Allophonic difference typically arise because particular contexts invite particular adaptations in
the production of the segment complementary distribution
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Underlying and Surface Representations
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Phonologists assume that there are two levels of representation: an underlying one and a
surface one
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Economy - allophonic information can be stated in a set of allophonic rules that are valid for all
morphemes of the lexicon
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With a single level, it would not be possible to express the phonological relatedness of
morpheme alternants
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Sequences of sibilants are broken up by a vowel in english , e.g plural of bus is buses,
rather than busz or buss
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Many generalizations are only valid at a level other than the surface level
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Two Levels of Representation
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Neutralization Rule - Frequently, the output of a rule is an already existing segment
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When a morpheme has a number of alternants, one of these will be chosen as the underlying
form by the phonologist
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First allows you to write rules that do not destroy a segmental contrast of the language
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The rules needed to produce allophony are easy to write
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Vacuous rule - application of a rule without effect
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Easier to state an exception than to use an exception to state something common
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Underlying Form
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4: Representation of Phonemes
October 5, 2017
3:01 PM
Class Notes Page 1
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