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Chapter 3

LINGUIST 1Z03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Joule, Dental And Alveolar Flaps, Vocal Folds


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINGUIST 1Z03
Professor
Karen Tucker
Chapter
3

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1Z03 Chapter 03: Phonetic Feactures
Karen Tucker
Textbook
Phonemes -smallest units of a speaker’s mental representation
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Non-continuants - complete closure of oral cavity
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Continuants - articulated with a free flow of airstream through the oral cavity
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Sonorants - produced with fairly continuous airstream
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Obstruents - obstruction of airstream
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Three phonemes p, t, k, are aspirated sometimes
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Phonological features are binary ,meaning they are either one or the other
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Use square brackets when referring to features
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Features have a phonetic basis
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Articulatory features include places and manners of articulation
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Phonetic features have to be contrastive of distinctive - they must be able to differentiate
between individual phonemes and individual phoneme classes
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Phonemes are represented in a speaker’s brain similarly
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Feature matrixes can illustrate the properties of phonemes
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E.g vowels and consonants, sonorants and obstruents, syllabic
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Glides are not articulated with constriction in the vocal tract
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Syllabic - describes phonemes that can function as the nucleus of a syllable, usually vowels
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Major-Class Features - distinguish between major classes of speech sounds
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Continuant, nasal, strident, lateral
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Strident - obstruents whose articulation involves friction as in the case of the phonemes /s/
and sh
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Lateral - produced with tongue contact in oral cavity, with airstream passing at both sides of
the tongue
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Allomorph - versions of a morpheme such as the s in bats and bugs
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Binary features specify these places further
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Monovalent features - describe the places of articulation
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Coronal - articulated with tip,blade or tongue (e.g t ,s sh, th, l)
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Anterior - articulated at alveolar ridge or further forward ( includes labials)
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Distributed - phonemes that are articulated with a constriction of a large part of the vocal
tract
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Further specified as high, low, back, and tense
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Tense vowels produced with a more peripheral tongue position
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Long vowels are sometimes referred to as tense
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Short vowels are referred to as lax
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Dorsal - articulation involving the dorsum, the back of the tongue and includes k , g , ng
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All sonorants are voiced
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Underspecification theory - only distinctive but no redundant features form part of a
speaker’s linguistic knowledge, in the mental representation of phonemes, features whose
values are predictable are omitted (e.g all front vowels are unrounded, so the feature [-round]
can be predicted from the feature [-back]
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Suggests that phoneme features are hierarchically ordered
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Feature trees can also represent the internal structure of phonemes - feature geometry
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Manner Features
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3 : Phonetic Features
October 5, 2017
2:58 PM
Class Notes Page 1
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