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Chapter 5

MUSIC 2II3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Jack Ely, Colpix Records, Terry Melcher


Department
Music
Course Code
MUSIC 2II3
Professor
Susan Fast
Chapter
5

Page:
of 5
Chapter 5: American Responses
Folk Rock
- Dylan plugs in
Not particularly known outside the folk community
Popularity was fuelled by appearances in folk clubs and on college
campuses, greater in the UK than in the United States
Common for folksingers to write their own music, often creating new
songs from tunes drawn or adapted from traditional folk melodies
Dylans early songs involved topical songs which addressed civil rights
and the Vietnam conflict
However, he became increasingly focused on his own feelings and
attempts to understand the world
The personal lyrics of the songs are crafted with the painstaking aesthetic
attitude more common among poets than musicians
Became interested in using electric instruments
Folk community did not express an overwhelmingly negative reaction to
Dylans electrified music when the album was released perhaps because of
the strong acoustic-based material
Controversy at Newport Folk festival
Positively 4th Street:
Simple verse
Lot of lyrics
12 verses over the same 8-bar structure, without much change in
the accompaniment
Track remains static, leaving the listener to focus on the lyrics
Dylan's songs showed that pop music could address serious social issues
rather than just teenage romance or frivolous concerns, and this became a
model for many other songwriters
- The Byrds and the Jingle-Jangle of the electric twelve-string guitar
Byrds from Los Angeles
Roger McGuinn had studied folk music as a teenager and played in folk
clubs by night while working as a Brill Building songwriter for Bobby
Darin
Bands progression from folk vocal-harmony act to a rock band
The Byrds initially made their mark with rock versions of folk songs
The guitar introduction invokes jazz, employing a melodic figure
borrowed form legendary saxophonist John Coltranes “India” with the
lyrics referring both to the cruising altitude of a transatlantic jet and to
drugs
- The Byrds, Dylan, the Beach Boys and the music business
The seriousness of the Byrd’s brand of folk rock seemed to set this music
apart form manufactured Brill Building music and carefree surf songs
Mr Tambourine Man brings together the folk revival (Dyalns song), girl
groups (Phil Spetor), and surf music (The Beach Boys) and, with the use
of the electric twelve-string inspired by A Hard Day’s Night
Contrasting verse form
The odd number of measures in the verse and chorus arise because
these sections are expanded from what would typically be sixteen
measure sections
- Simon and Garfunkel go electric
Transformation of folk into folk rock: “The Sounds of Silence”
Pursued traditional folk revival material
- California dreamin’: Barry McGuire, the Turtles, and the Mamas and the Papas
Early songs were covers, but new songs were soon written specifically as
folk-rock numbers such as P.F. Sloan’s “Eve of Destruction”
Turtles mostly covered Bob Dylan songs
The Mamas and the Papas featured John Phillip’s sophisticated four-part
vocal arrangements and was influenced by the close harmony singing
found in early 1960s folk and doo-wop. These vocals were often
accompanied by a rock rhythm section of drums, electric bass, guitars, and
keyboards
American Pop on Both Coasts
- L.A.: Spector and his legacy
Beatles
Retired after Tina Turner’s “River Deep, Mountain High”
- The Beach Boys: Brian stays home
Beach Boys had to fight for the attention of both pop listeners and their
record company as the Beatles were also signed to Capitol Records
The Beach Boys Today and Summer Days (and Summer Nights) reflected
Wilsons increasingly sophisticated approach to songwriting, arranging
and production
Began to explore more complicated musical structures and employed a
broader palette of instrumentation, including orchestral instruments
Pet Sounds set a new standard for record production and musical
sophistication within rock music
On Sloop John B., you can hear the clear combination of Spector’s Wall of
Sound with Wilsons lush vocal harmony arrangements
California Girls
Contrasting verse-chorus, with a 10-bar intro leading into a 2-bar
vamp that prepares the arrival of the first-verse vocals
The verse and chorus are both 8 bars in length
Builds the arrangement by employing solo lead vocals in the first
two verses, then introducing a call-and-response scheme in the
harmony vocals of the chorus, and using doo-wop inspired backup
vocal in the third and fourth verses
Pet Sounds would become one of the most influential records of the
1960s, prodding the Beatles to experiment more radically while recording
Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
- Sonny and Cher: Dylan meets the wall of sound
Although the couple got their start by capitalizing on the folk rock boom,
Sonny and Cher’s later recordings moved into a more traditional brand of
pop
While Bono extended the Spector legacy through his productions, he and
Cher also made a significant impact on hippie fashion
Sonny and Cher were among the first to insist that hey had the right to
dress any way they chose
- Gary Lewis and the Playboys and Johnny Rivers
Like Sonny Bono, Johnny Rivers had been in the music business for
several years before he scored a hit record
Rivers became a regular at the Whiskey-a-Go-Go where he played mostly
rock oldies and drew a star-studded crowd. His popularity at the Whiskey
led to a contract with Imperial Records
Rivers also experimented with folk rock
Rivers started his own label, Soul City
- Meanwhile back in New York: The Lovin Spoonful and the Rascals
Migration of folk musicians from Greenwich Village to Southern
California
Loovin Sponful was a popular attraction at the Night Owl Coffee House
in Greenwich Village. Signed with independent Kama Sutra Records who
released “Do You Believe in Magic
Formed in New York in early 1964 but emerging from rhythm and blues
clubs rather than the Greenwich Village folk scene, the Young Rascals are
better seen as precursors to British blues bands like the Spencer Davis
Group than aa an answer to the Beatles
The Young Rascals was led by the funky Hammond organ and soulfoul
vocals
- The old guard hangs on: New York
By mid-1963, Don Kirschner had left New York’s Brill Building for the
Los Angeles-based Colpix label
Brill Building veterans Leiber and Stroller continued to place hit records
on the pop charts through 1965 on their newly formed Red Bird label
Berns had the most success with singer-songwriter Neil Diamond
Diamond also worked as a Brill Building songwriter, and wrote several hit
songs for the Monkees, including “I’m a Believer”
The Four Seasons was another New York-based act that didn’t seem to be
affected by the British invasion
The Four Seasons doo-wop vocal style was very different from the music
of the Beatles and other British invasion groups, however