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Chapter 6

PHYSICS 1L03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Dmitri Mendeleev, Bohr Model, Chemical Element


Department
Physics
Course Code
PHYSICS 1L03
Professor
Christine Wilson
Chapter
6

Page:
of 5
Fundamental Particles
The fundamental particles of the atom are the electron, proton, and neutron.
Particle Mass amu charge charge
Electron 0.000549 -1
Proton 1.00728 1
Neutron 1.00867 none none
Atomic Mass Units (amu): A unit of mass equal to 1/12 the mass of an atom
of the carbon isotope with mass number 12; approximately
.
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The Atom
Brief History of the Atom - Here are links to more information on the atom and
atomic theory. Please read each entry.
Wikipedia-This is a link to the Wikipedia entry on the atom.
Vision Learning Atomic Theory I - This is the first part of how the atomic
theory developed.
Vision Learning Atomic Theory II - This is the second part of how the
atomic theory developed.
Greek Atom
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Dalton Atom
John Dalton, (1766-1844) wrote New System of Chemical Philosophy in 1808.
Dalton's atomic theory rests on the following postulates.
1. All matter consists of tiny particles.
2. Atoms are indestructible and unchangeable.
3. Elements are characterized by the mass of their atoms.
4. When elements react, their atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios.
Dmitri Mendeleev - Periodic Table, Period Table 2
Thomson Atom
J. J. Thomson (1856 - 1940) with others discovered the electron in the late
1890's.
Bohr Atom
Neils Bohr (1885-1962), put forth the planetary model of the atom. Bohr
simulation.
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Atomic Structure
Chemical Elements: The number of protons in the atoms of an element is
known as the atomic number of the element. For example, all atoms with 6
protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon, and all atoms
with 92 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the element uranium.
Isotopes: Isotopes are atoms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same
atomic number, Z, but different atomic weights, A. The word isotope, meaning at
the same place, comes from the fact that isotopes are located at the same place on
the periodic table. The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons in
an atom. Thus, isotopes of a particular element contain the same number of
protons. The difference in atomic weights results from differences in the number
of neutrons in the atomic nuclei.
Atomic Nomenclature
The protocol for representing elements:
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