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Chapter 1

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Political Science
Mark Busser

Chapter 1: GLOBALIZATION AND GLOBAL POLITICS Globalization: worldwide interconnectedness; continuous issue of world politics Hyperglobalist: globalization is bringing out the demise of sovereign nation-state: governments to control their own economics and societies Sceptics: reject globalization, state and geopolitics remain the principle forces shaping world order Transnationalism: hyperglobalist and sceptics exaggerating. Not affecting much the sovereign state, but yes, globalizaiotn of politics emergene of global politics, less meaningful in the distinction btw domestic and international affairs (world is more together) Integration: intensified as expansion of global commerce, finance, and production links together the fate of nations, communities, households across the world’s major economic regions and beyond within an emerging global market economy International organizatins: international Monetary fund, international civil Aviation organization, cooperation between parallel government agencies in different countries Global interconnectedness Definition of Globalization 1. intensification of worldwide social reations linking localities that shped by events occurring from far away 2. Integration of world economy 3. De-territorialisation or the growth of supraterritorial relations between people 4. Time-space compression Security in one country (bombing) affects farming business in another country  International Interdependence linkage between countries Internationalization/ interdependence/ globalization Conceptualizing globalization  Stretching: Civil wars illegal migrants go to other coutes  Intensification: growing magnitude of interconnectedness: economic to ecological o E.g. SARS spread, weapon spread  Accelerating pace of global interaction and processes: evolution of transport and communication rapidly  Extensity, intensity, velocity growing: deepening enmeshment of local and global local events become global awareness expressed in many languages Time-space compression: literally shrinking wolrd Deterritorialization: social, political, economic events are increasingly stretched across the globe, become insignificant sense to a strictly territorial logic.  Terrorist, criminal network operate locally and globally  National economic space under globalization  No longer coterminous with national territorial space  Outsourcing to asian countries from large corps  Territory: irrelevant, but acknolwdge their relative significant as constraints for social action and power  Distinction between domestic and international is declining  Shrinking world: relative denationalization of power Internationalization: growing dependenc e between states, the very idea of internationalization presumes that they remain discrete national units with clearly demarcated borders  More exercise of power Globalization: every distinction between domestic and external breaks down.  Events from far away come to almost immediate local consequences  Localized developments diffused rapidly around the globe  Limit of power Sceptics say globalization ended when 9/11 happened  Insecurity  Western modernity and globalization against it  Problem with sceptic view: only focus on economics o Excludes social life, culture to crime, economics to education  Now a days we are more intensified on geopolitics, regionalization, and internationalization  Most of international economic and political activity is concentrated within OECD states  Majority of world’s population in South are less integrated into global system  Geopolitics, state power, nationalism and territorial boundaries are growing importance in world politics  Internationalization or regionalization are creatures of state policy not corporate actors or capitalist imperatives  Globalization is best self-serving myth or ideology which reinforces western and particularly US hegemony in world politics Globalization is complex multidimensional process  Economic globalization and cultural globalization are not identical  9/11 s;owedown economic globalization but increased pace of globalization in military, technology and cultural domains  Economic: worldwide trade, finance, production  global informational capitalism  Multinational corporations organize production and marketing on a global basis while operation of global financial markets determines which coutnries get credit and on what terms  Military: weapons of mass destruction, growth of transnational terrorism, growing significance of transnational military corporations and discourse of global insecurity point to the existence of global military order  Legal: expansion of transnational and international law from trade to humamn rights alongside the creation of new world legal institutions such as international criminal court is indicative of an emerging global legal order  Ecological: shared ecology, shared environmental problems, e.g. global warming, species protection, creation of multilateral response and regimes of global environment governance  Cultural: mix of homogenization and ncreased heterogeneity given global diffusion of pop culture, global media corps, communication networkds  Social: shifiting migration from south to north and east to west  major global issue Globalization does not mean universalism (sceptics think they are the same)  Globalization is uneven  Asymmetrical globalization  Perceived by OECD as western globalization provoking fears of new imperialism and significant counter-reactions o From Protests of anti-globalization to different cultural communities wanting to protect their indigenous culture o Violence has been central to globalization Institutionalization : contemporary globalization  Global and regional infrastructures of control and communication from WTO (world trade org)  Showed how globalization is organized and managed  New real-time global communications (translation of languages into single social space) The engines of globalization:  Technics (central to any account of globalization, modern communication infrastructures)  Economics (crucial as tech, capitalism\s insatiable requirement for new markets and profits globalization of econ activity  Politics (power, interest, institutions) o Tech = physical infrastructure o Politics = normative infrastructure  E.g. USA government and UK governments The three waves of globalization: 1) Age of discovery (1450-1850) a. Shaped by European expansion and conquest 2) Major expansion, spread and entrenchment of European empires (1850-1945) 3) Contemporary globalization (1960+) a. New epoch in human affairs b. Industrial revolution, expansion of the West in nineteenth century c. New age in world history i. Microchip and satellite are icons of globalized world order d. More robust after 9/11 e. Multidimensional, uneven, and asymmetrical process f. Thick form of globalization or globalism A world transformed, globalization and distorted global politics The Westphalian Constitution of world order  The Peace Treaties of Westphalia and Osnabruck (1648) established legal basis of modern statehood and rules/constitutions of modern world politics Formed the Normative structure/ constitution of the modern world order  Heart of Westphalian settlement agreement among Europe’s rulers to recognize each other’s right to rule their own territories
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