Tutorial: Inequality Chapter 6
• Divides the chapter into sections. These are the main points:
o First section shows the concepts of inequality
o Second section talks about the debates of inequality in a political and economic
sense within developing worlds during and after the Cold War.
o Third section talks about income inequality in the 20th century due to the trade off
between development and equality. Obviously this income inequality lead to
poverty in the 20the century.
o Fourth section talks about equality as a conception due to the differences humans
are born with or the different circumstances they are born into.
• Simon Kuznetsk and his inverted U hypothesis (inequality emerges at the early stages of
• High initial inequality reduces the growth of poverty throughout a country.
• We must target economic inequality to eradicate inequality
• Inequality prevents complete development and full citizenship.
• Societies questioning the legitimacy of inequality.
• Poor became targets for anti-poverty campaigns
• Change from politics of redistribution to politics of recognition
• Rousseau and ontological equality: assumed men in a pre-social original state of nature.
• Karl Marx: equality of outcome (In the 18th century, the idea that men were equal by
nature came through.)
o Unequal distribution of labour and it's products (property) originated from the
nucleus of the family. Seen in capitalism where the capital class gets it's wealth
from other, lower classes.
o This kind of thinking initiated the thought of such exploitations to be unjust.
• To be able to understand underdevelopment we go to the terms of Gunder Frank's core
and periphery to further understand unequal exchange. (Though this is criticized solely
• Max Weber:
o Wrote in the early 20th century
o Said that social division were because of economic and non economic
o Observed that technological advances and economic transformations will create a
larger gap in equality and will raise the class and status situation further.
o Status group: open or closed (status by decent).
o Used the example of the caste system: closed status group.
• There have been different ways to separate societies into class and the values and norms
of a society has been taken into account.
• Think that the socio division will progress with economic division
• But this creates a problem when looking at the Caste system where religion plays a huge
role socially, economically and in political inequality. • Production is one of the underlying causes to inequality
• Inequality has the ability to perpetuate itself from generations
• The political system develops around inequality
• But as an economy develops alongside political powers to selected individuals (the elites
specifically) ... Clientalism and patronage emerged.[bribing your political support]
• These actions are obstacles to democratization and create internalized feelings of
o To relieve this these people would turn towards a positive outlook on their
humiliation (ex: Guatemalan Mayans from indigenous or Indian peoples)
• By the 1960s, questions on if the measures taken towards equality was working
• John Rawls inTheory of Justice: “All social values- liberty and opportunity income
andwealth and the bases of self respect- are to be distributed equally unless an unequal
distribution of any, or all, of these values is to everyone's advantage.”
• Some countries have tried to stray away from Capitalist ways like Cuba who hoped to
practice equality through egalitarianism.
• Around the mid 70s, redistribution of wealth was taken into consideration as well as the