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Chapter 62

Inequality- Ch. 6 2XX3.docx notes

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Political Science
Nibaldo Galleguillos

Tutorial: Inequality Chapter 6 (Extra readings) • Divides the chapter into sections. These are the main points: o First section shows the concepts of inequality o Second section talks about the debates of inequality in a political and economic sense within developing worlds during and after the Cold War. o Third section talks about income inequality in the 20th century due to the trade off between development and equality. Obviously this income inequality lead to poverty in the 20the century. o Fourth section talks about equality as a conception due to the differences humans are born with or the different circumstances they are born into. • Simon Kuznetsk and his inverted U hypothesis (inequality emerges at the early stages of development) • High initial inequality reduces the growth of poverty throughout a country. • We must target economic inequality to eradicate inequality • Inequality prevents complete development and full citizenship. • Societies questioning the legitimacy of inequality. • Poor became targets for anti-poverty campaigns • Change from politics of redistribution to politics of recognition • Rousseau and ontological equality: assumed men in a pre-social original state of nature. • Karl Marx: equality of outcome (In the 18th century, the idea that men were equal by nature came through.) o Unequal distribution of labour and it's products (property) originated from the nucleus of the family. Seen in capitalism where the capital class gets it's wealth from other, lower classes. o This kind of thinking initiated the thought of such exploitations to be unjust. • To be able to understand underdevelopment we go to the terms of Gunder Frank's core and periphery to further understand unequal exchange. (Though this is criticized solely market based.) • Max Weber: o Wrote in the early 20th century o Said that social division were because of economic and non economic determinants. o Observed that technological advances and economic transformations will create a larger gap in equality and will raise the class and status situation further. o Status group: open or closed (status by decent). o Used the example of the caste system: closed status group. • There have been different ways to separate societies into class and the values and norms of a society has been taken into account. • Think that the socio division will progress with economic division • But this creates a problem when looking at the Caste system where religion plays a huge role socially, economically and in political inequality. • Production is one of the underlying causes to inequality • Inequality has the ability to perpetuate itself from generations • The political system develops around inequality • But as an economy develops alongside political powers to selected individuals (the elites specifically) ... Clientalism and patronage emerged.[bribing your political support] • These actions are obstacles to democratization and create internalized feelings of humiliation. o To relieve this these people would turn towards a positive outlook on their humiliation (ex: Guatemalan Mayans from indigenous or Indian peoples) • By the 1960s, questions on if the measures taken towards equality was working • John Rawls inTheory of Justice: “All social values- liberty and opportunity income andwealth and the bases of self respect- are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution of any, or all, of these values is to everyone's advantage.” • Some countries have tried to stray away from Capitalist ways like Cuba who hoped to practice equality through egalitarianism. • Around the mid 70s, redistribution of wealth was taken into consideration as well as the no
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