Poli Sci 3b03: Week 3
Why do the strong states in East Asian become strong states?
South Korea 13 billion in capital between 1954 – 1978
Japan: 3.6 billion between 1954- 1978
All Africa received 6.9 billion in capital during this period
Latin America: 14.8 billion in capital
So you can see how these small countries in Asia received massive amounts of
Sequence of events: The destruction, then the capital that allows a country to
develop and then the bureaucracy
The bureaucracy in Japan was the one part of the elite that survived the world war.
Many of the economic and industrial elite as well as the military got sidelined by the
The bureaucracy is well trained, educated and skilled.
In South Korea and Taiwan to some extent inherited a bureaucracy during the 2 nd
world war during the war during colonization which remained in place.
Taiwan in a sense inherited from Beijing who fled from there, so in a sense inherited
skilled enough bureaucrats from 1949 onwards. Hong Kong had a bureaucracy that
was started with the British. Thailand was the one country in this part of the world,
that was never colonized. The reason they developed their bureaucracy before
everyone else and on their own because in order to keep off colonial powers they
started to see the importance of skill and education in order to create this
bureaucracy that they needed for development. The other two countries that
developed relatively good bureacuracys was Malaya and Singapore.
(Malaya: Chin Peng)
The guerilla movement is only as successful if you have the people behind it.
The brits approach: The hearts and mind approach, comes out in this period in
Malaya by a man named Templer. It means that you forget about the guerillas for a
minute and you think about the hardships of the people, get them on your side. It
menas addressing the grievances of the population, provide them with security.
They put in schools, advances in healthcare (mobile units) they built roads and
railways, gave them community centres and land. In order to deal with the
girevances you need a bureaucracy so at the end of the 2 world war there was no
bureaucracy in Malaya however by 1957 in Malaya there was a substantial
bureaucracy in place because the brits needed to win the war, interesting.. war
makes states. You need the whole of the government to conduct the counter insurgency not just
the military. In each of these countries that essentially became strong states, the
bureaucracy’s in each of these states were quite strong. (Strong, efficient, cheap
You also need a pilot agency: (MITI in Japan) This coordinated and guided the
bureaucracy in terms of economic development.
Good Education: In order to get these skilled people to work in bureaucracy’s and
pilot agency’s you need a good education system.
Developmental Economic philosophy: The leadership of a country needs to be
interested in not just maintaining their economic position but also in growing.
ISI: the problem with this in these countries( S.K., Singapore) These are relatively
small countries so if you are relying on ISI at some point it gets hard because the
market becomes saturated. At some point you have to move to E.O.I (exporting)
How does this happen? Well at South Korea and Taiwan, in the 1950s