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Poli Sci 3b03week3.docx

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McMaster University
Political Science
Richard Stubbs

Poli Sci 3b03: Week 3 Why do the strong states in East Asian become strong states? South Korea 13 billion in capital between 1954 – 1978 Japan: 3.6 billion between 1954- 1978 All Africa received 6.9 billion in capital during this period Latin America: 14.8 billion in capital So you can see how these small countries in Asia received massive amounts of capital. Sequence of events: The destruction, then the capital that allows a country to develop and then the bureaucracy The bureaucracy in Japan was the one part of the elite that survived the world war. Many of the economic and industrial elite as well as the military got sidelined by the americans. The bureaucracy is well trained, educated and skilled. In South Korea and Taiwan to some extent inherited a bureaucracy during the 2 nd world war during the war during colonization which remained in place. Taiwan in a sense inherited from Beijing who fled from there, so in a sense inherited skilled enough bureaucrats from 1949 onwards. Hong Kong had a bureaucracy that was started with the British. Thailand was the one country in this part of the world, that was never colonized. The reason they developed their bureaucracy before everyone else and on their own because in order to keep off colonial powers they started to see the importance of skill and education in order to create this bureaucracy that they needed for development. The other two countries that developed relatively good bureacuracys was Malaya and Singapore. (Malaya: Chin Peng) The guerilla movement is only as successful if you have the people behind it. The brits approach: The hearts and mind approach, comes out in this period in Malaya by a man named Templer. It means that you forget about the guerillas for a minute and you think about the hardships of the people, get them on your side. It menas addressing the grievances of the population, provide them with security. They put in schools, advances in healthcare (mobile units) they built roads and railways, gave them community centres and land. In order to deal with the girevances you need a bureaucracy so at the end of the 2 world war there was no bureaucracy in Malaya however by 1957 in Malaya there was a substantial bureaucracy in place because the brits needed to win the war, interesting.. war makes states. You need the whole of the government to conduct the counter insurgency not just the military. In each of these countries that essentially became strong states, the bureaucracy’s in each of these states were quite strong. (Strong, efficient, cheap bureaucracy) You also need a pilot agency: (MITI in Japan) This coordinated and guided the bureaucracy in terms of economic development. Good Education: In order to get these skilled people to work in bureaucracy’s and pilot agency’s you need a good education system. Developmental Economic philosophy: The leadership of a country needs to be interested in not just maintaining their economic position but also in growing. ISI: the problem with this in these countries( S.K., Singapore) These are relatively small countries so if you are relying on ISI at some point it gets hard because the market becomes saturated. At some point you have to move to E.O.I (exporting) How does this happen? Well at South Korea and Taiwan, in the 1950s
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