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Physch exm review.docx

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Richard B Day

Introduction: Critical Thinking Critical Thinking: intellectual skills and activities concerned with evaluating information + our own thought in a disciplined way; helps us refine our thought processes, so we can think and assess information more comprehensively, that helps our ability to identify and reject false ideas/ideologies • widen perspective and knowledge • embraces skepticism; don't simply accept claims Memory and Learning: we are better at remembering events that are associated with emotion or personal experience Process required in remembering: • encoding: transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory • storage: maintaining information in memory • retrieval: bringing stored material to mind types: • sensory: fraction of a second • short term: limited capacity • long term: unlimited encoding enrichment: • Elaboration: Linking new information to old memories • Visual Imagery: Picturing a word by giving it an image and Picturing a Concept • Self-Referent Encoding: How does the material apply to me. Relate it to my own life * the brain is a NETWORK; not a camera Chapter 1: Intro to Psych scientific study of the behaviour of individuals and their What is Psychology: mental processes. • what's common sense to you is your own biased beliefs that are reinforced by your familial/social group. scientific method: set of steps used to analyze and solve problems • basis for drawing conclusions about behaviour • behaviour: observable actions by which an organism adjusts to its environment Goals of Psychology: Describing what happens: • behavioural data: observations (perceivable) • levels of analysis: brain, individual, cross-cultural references • objectivity: unbiased measures of behaviour Explaining what happens: • examine regular patterns in behaviour and mental processes: "when this behaviour happens, it's associated with these factors" • synthesis of information: bringing together patterns Predicting what will happen: • statements about the likelihood that a certain behaviour will occur • closely linked to the explanation of behaviour Controlling what happens: • intervention • prevention Evolution of Modern Psychology Structuralism, Functionalism, Gestalt Psychology Structuralism: basic elements of sensation reveal the underlying structure of the mind • • sensations (elements of perceptions) • images (elements of ideas) • affections (elements of emotions) • emphasizes the 'what' of mental behaviour Functionalism: emphasizes the 'why' of mental behaviour or consciousness • Gestalt: can't understand the whole by looking at individual parts • • we organize our information into patterns Modern Psychology: Psychodynamic Perspective: behaviour explained by inherited instincts, biological drives, and attempts • to resolve conflicts • emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts Behaviourist Perspective: •behaviour explained by before conditions, behavioural responses and consequences • focus on objective, observable behaviour • behaviour shaped by environment • positive and negative reinforcement (operant conditioning) • classical conditioning • behaviour modification Humanistic Perspective: •emphasizes individuals inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to their full potential • people are unique • free will • personal growth • self actualization Cognitive Perspective: •behaviour is more than a stimulus and response; we don't just react, we make novel choices Biological Perspective: behaviour explained by underlying physical structures and biochemical • processes • focus on functioning of the genes, nervous system and endocrine system Evolutionary Perspective: behavioural and mental adaptiveness • • focus on nature selection and long process of evolution Sociocultural Perspective: •cross cultural differences in causes/consequences of behaviour Chapter 2: Research Method & Ethics Research Processes: • determinism: doctrine that all events are determined by specific casual factors that are potentially knowable • theory: organized set of concepts that explain a phenomena/set of phenomena; based on concept of determinism • hypothesis: tentative statement, testable with the scientific method about the relationship between causes and consequences of behaviour; often 'if- then' statements • scientific method: set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting information • variables in research: • independent variable: casual part of relationship; factor manipulated by the researcher • dependent variable: effect part of relationship; factor that researcher measures to determine the impact of the independent variable • confounding variable: provides alternative explanations for experiment results • expectancy/placebo effects: when people know that they're taking part in an experiment, they may change the way they regularly act Chapter 14: Understand Human Personality Personality: complex set of psychological qualities that influence an individual's characteristic patterns of behaviour across different situations and over time • theories of personality: hypothetical statements about the structure and functioning of individual's personalities • help achieve major goals of psych: understanding the structure,origins and correlates of personality & predicting behaviour and life events based on what we know about personality Type and Trait Personality Theories •classifying people into a limited number of distinct types and scaling he degree to which they can be described by different traits Categorizing by Types • personality types: distinct patterns of personality characteristics used to assign people to categories; qualitative differences rather than differences in degree, used to discriminate among people; if a person is assigned to one type they can't belong to any other type in that system; why people like to use this system-it simplifies the complex process of understanding people • Hippocrates: theorized that the body contained four fluids (humours) that are associated with a particular temperament (pattern of emotions and behaviours) • Galen: individual's personality depended on which humour was predominant in their body • blood: sanguine temperament: cheerful and active • phlegm: phlegmatic temperament: apathetic and sluggish • black bile: melancholy temperament: sad and brooding • yellow bile: choleric temperament: irritable and excitable • William Sheldon: related physique to temperament; three categories based on their body builds: • endomorphic: fat, soft, round; relaxed, fond of eating, sociable • mesomorphic: muscular, rectangular, strong; physical people, filled with energy, courage and assertive tendencies • ectomorphic: long, thin, fragile; brainy, artistic and introverted • Frank Sulloway: theory based on birth order • birth order predictions based on Darwin's idea that organism diversify to find niches in which they will survive • firstborns: have a ready-made niche; immediately command their parents love and attention; seek to maintain that by identifying and complying with their parents • later-born: need to find a different niche; one where they don't need to clearly follow their parents example; rebellious; seek to excel in those domains where older siblings haven't already established superiority Describing with Traits • type theories presume that there are separate, discontinuous categories into which people fit (e.g-firstborn, later-born), but they do not capture more subtle aspects of personality • trait theories: continuous dimensions, such as intelligence • traits: enduring qualities or attributes that predispose individuals to behave consistently across situations. Allport's Trait Approach • traits = building blocks of personality and the source of individuality; produce coherence in behaviour because they connect and unify a person's reactions to a variety of stimuli; 'intervening variables'-relating sets of stimuli and responses that might seem like they have little to do w/each other • 3 kinds of traits: • cardinal traits: traits that a person organizes their life around. (Mother Theresa & self-sacrifice) • central traits: traits that represent major characteristics of a person (major characteristics-honesty or optimism) • secondary traits: specific personal features that help predict an individual's behaviour (less useful for understanding personality) e.g- food or dress preferences • critical determiners of individual behaviour: personality structures Universal Trait Dimensions 18000 adjectives in the English language to describe individual • differences • Cattell:16 factors underlie human personality: source traits (they provide the underlying source for the surface behaviours we think of as personality); behaviour opposites (reserved vs outgoing) • Hans Eysenck: extraversion (internally vs externally oriented) neuroticism (emotionally stable vs emotionally unstable) Five Factor Model •five factors best characterize personality structure • a comprehensive descriptive personality system that maps out the relationships among common traits, theoretical concepts, and personality scales, informally called the Big Five. Evolutionary Perspective on Trait Dimensions relating the five factor model to consistent types of interactions that people • had with each oner and with the external world over the course of human evolution Psychodynamic Theories •theories of personality that share the assumption that personality is shaped by, and behaviour is motivated by inner forces Freudian Psychoanalysis • at the core of personality are events within a person's mind that motivate behaviour; motivation can operate at an unconscious level • Freud: all behaviour is motivated; all acts determined by motives Drives and Psychosexual Development source of motivation for human actions to psychic energy found within • each individual • inborn instincts/drives that were tension systems created by the organs on the body • when activated these sources could be expressed in many different ways • two basic drives: • self-preservation: meeting needs like hunger and thirst • eros: driving force related to sexual urges and preservation of the species • libido: the psychic energy that drives individuals toward sensual pleasures of all types especially sexual ones Psychic Determinism assumption that all mental and behavioural reactions are determined by • earlier experiences • emphasis on the unconscious: the domain of the psyche tat stores repressed urges and primitive impulses Structure of Personality •id: operates irrationally, on impulse; immediate gratification; governed by the pleasure principle; primitive, unconscious part • superego: storehouse of values (moral attitudes); conscience; often in conflict with the id • ego: reality based aspect of the self; arbitrates the conflict between the id and the superego; reality principle Repression and Ego Defence •repression: psychological process that protects an individual from experiencing extreme anxiety or guilt about impulses, ideas or memories that are unacceptable/dangers to express • ego defence mechanisms: mental strategies (conscious or unconscious) that the ego uses to defend itself in the daily conflict between id impulses and the superego's demand to deny them • anxiety: intense emotional response caused by the preconscious recognition that a repressed conflict is about to emerge in consciousness; danger signal (repression is working) Evaluation of Freudian Theory • psychoanalytic theories are vague and not operationally defined • does not predict what will occur; applied after events have occurred • it is a developmental theory, but it never included observations or studies of children • more on pg 440 Extending Psychodynamic Theories • Alfred Adler: personality conflict arises from incompatibility between external environmental pressures and internal strivings for adequacy rather than from competing urges within the person • Karen Horney: womb envy; men devalue women • Carl Jung: collective unconsciousness: part of an individual's unconscious that is inherited, evolutionarily developed and comment o all members of the species Humanistic Theories characterized by a concern for the integrity of an individual's persona and • conscious experience and growth potential • self-actualization: constant striving to realize your full potential Features of Humanistic Theories motivation for behaviour comes from a person's unique tendencies (innate • & learned) to develop and change in positive directions toward self actualization • the drive for self actualization can come intro conflict with the need for approval from the self and others • Carl Rogers stressed importance of unconditional positive regard: complete love and acceptance of and individual by another person (parent and child) w/no conditions attached • humanistic theories are: • holistic: they explain people's separate acts in terms of their entire personalties • dispositional: they focus on the innate qualities within a person that influence the direction behaviour will take • phenomenological: they emphasize an individual's frame of reference and subjective view of reality • unlike psychodynamic theories, humanistic theories do not see people's present behaviours as unconsciously guided by past experiences Evaluation of Humanistic Theories •humanistic theories celebrate the healthy personality that strives for happiness and self actualization • do not focus on the particular characteristics of individuals; they are more theories about human nature and the qualities that people share Social Learning and Cognitive Theories behaviour influenced by environmental contingencies • Rotter's Expectancy Theory expectancy: the extent to which people believe that they behaviours in • particular situations will bring about rewards • you can begin to predict people's behaviour only if you can assess both their expectancy with respect to a reward and the extent to which they value a reward • people bring specific expectanci
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