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Canada (161,877)
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PSYCH 1X03 (260)
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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Language.docx

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Joe Kim

Chapter 5: Language Language: unique human form of communication  Is symbolic  organized system to represent concepts symbolically and communicate ideas o Language stimuli  meanings and concepts o Oral language  stimuli are sounds which formulate words  Diff languages have diff stimuli for words as they are pronounced differently after translated into another language o Concrete when you can physically point or find the item in your environment o Symbol  when you use a word which represents an item  This is when the item is not present in your environment  Involves arbitrary associations o Sounds to meanings has an arbitrary association o This allowed diff languages to have different words for the same item o Onomatopoeia  sound is inherent with its meaning, word imitates the meaning  Eg. Meow, splash  Is productive o Phonemes  smallest sound units of language (around 40 in English) o Words  combination of phonemes (around 500 000 in oxford dict.) o Phonemes are combined to make words and words are combined to make infinite sentences  Is rule-giverned o The infinite number of combination of words fallow a defined set of rules in order to make sence o Rules in different languages are different about the combination of symbols(phonemes) Whorfian Hypothesis 178  Particular language used by people can shape thought  Problems: linguistic data differs  metaphors are subjective and anecdotal [database of these differences has not been established]  Problem 2: lack of non-linguistic data to make any inferences  ‘thinking for speaking theory’  we think and pay attention to stimuli in our environment by how we conceptualize through language Language Structure 182  Structural characteristics are similar in all languages  Linguists study language  Morphemes: symbols of language o Smallest unit of sounds(signs in sign language) o Eg. Laptop  2morphemes lap and top o Big  2 morphemes bug and s  Phonemes: building blocks of symbols o Constituent sounds which create a morpheme o Diff languages has diff number or phonemes and diff combination rules o Some letters rep. more than one phoneme i.e c  makes a ‘s’ nd ‘k’ sound o Transparent orthographies  each letter only has one sound  Syntax: rules for constructing sentences [grammer] o Different languages have diff grammar rules o Diff order of words [verd, noun etc.] o Overregularization  when in process to learn the rules of a language but unable to master all rules and all exceptions pg. 184  Semantics: meanings o Same words have more than one meaning  essential to increase semantic knowledge Language development  Children develop at consistent order  Chart pg 186 Universal phonemic sensitivity: ability to discriminate all phonemes before learning  Lose this ability as people grow  Conditioned head-turn procedure  babies can recognize sound differences, where as adults can only recognize sound differences of their culture(English people cant tell difference between hindi phonemes, where as a child can tell difference between all phonemes)  Perceptual narrowing  process of losing ability to distinguish between sounds not in native language o This begins to happen within the first year  Infact-directed speech pg 188 : people speaking in a high pitch a
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