Textbook Notes (368,432)
Canada (161,877)
Psychology (1,468)
PSYCH 1X03 (260)
Joe Kim (247)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Language.docx

4 Pages
59 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 5: Language Language: unique human form of communication  Is symbolic  organized system to represent concepts symbolically and communicate ideas o Language stimuli  meanings and concepts o Oral language  stimuli are sounds which formulate words  Diff languages have diff stimuli for words as they are pronounced differently after translated into another language o Concrete when you can physically point or find the item in your environment o Symbol  when you use a word which represents an item  This is when the item is not present in your environment  Involves arbitrary associations o Sounds to meanings has an arbitrary association o This allowed diff languages to have different words for the same item o Onomatopoeia  sound is inherent with its meaning, word imitates the meaning  Eg. Meow, splash  Is productive o Phonemes  smallest sound units of language (around 40 in English) o Words  combination of phonemes (around 500 000 in oxford dict.) o Phonemes are combined to make words and words are combined to make infinite sentences  Is rule-giverned o The infinite number of combination of words fallow a defined set of rules in order to make sence o Rules in different languages are different about the combination of symbols(phonemes) Whorfian Hypothesis 178  Particular language used by people can shape thought  Problems: linguistic data differs  metaphors are subjective and anecdotal [database of these differences has not been established]  Problem 2: lack of non-linguistic data to make any inferences  ‘thinking for speaking theory’  we think and pay attention to stimuli in our environment by how we conceptualize through language Language Structure 182  Structural characteristics are similar in all languages  Linguists study language  Morphemes: symbols of language o Smallest unit of sounds(signs in sign language) o Eg. Laptop  2morphemes lap and top o Big  2 morphemes bug and s  Phonemes: building blocks of symbols o Constituent sounds which create a morpheme o Diff languages has diff number or phonemes and diff combination rules o Some letters rep. more than one phoneme i.e c  makes a ‘s’ nd ‘k’ sound o Transparent orthographies  each letter only has one sound  Syntax: rules for constructing sentences [grammer] o Different languages have diff grammar rules o Diff order of words [verd, noun etc.] o Overregularization  when in process to learn the rules of a language but unable to master all rules and all exceptions pg. 184  Semantics: meanings o Same words have more than one meaning  essential to increase semantic knowledge Language development  Children develop at consistent order  Chart pg 186 Universal phonemic sensitivity: ability to discriminate all phonemes before learning  Lose this ability as people grow  Conditioned head-turn procedure  babies can recognize sound differences, where as adults can only recognize sound differences of their culture(English people cant tell difference between hindi phonemes, where as a child can tell difference between all phonemes)  Perceptual narrowing  process of losing ability to distinguish between sounds not in native language o This begins to happen within the first year  Infact-directed speech pg 188 : people speaking in a high pitch a
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 1X03

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit