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PSYCH 1X03 (260)
Joe Kim (247)

Forming Impressions.docx

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Joe Kim

Forming Impressions Attribution- how to assign cause and effect to a given circumstance Jones and Davis - According to their influence theory, you actively analyze a person’s behaviour to make influences based on 3 variables Degree of Choice: - To understand why a person is behaving a particular way, it helps to know if he chose to act in the observed behaviour in question - For example; if your debating, if you are assigned an side then you are less bias to make such an influence - You may sometimes have difficulty appreciated the role of degree of choice in a chosen behaviour Expectation - how expected a particular behaviour is - uncommon behaviour gives us a lot more info than common behaviour - if someone behaves in a way typical to what you would expe t from them you don’t have any reason to infer an underlying cause to their behaviour Intended Behaviour - if the tobacco company had a commercial advocating lower smoking levels then you would suspect that their motivation behind this message was driven by a hidden goal, you may suspect this motivation behind this message was driven by a hidden goal, you would suspect theat that the tobacco company’s real goal is to look like a caring corporate citizen - you would probably not develop the same suspicion if you heard your sister advocating the same position Covariation Theory - Uses consistency, distinctiveness and consensus to determine if the behaviour is due to an individual’s disposition or the situation itself. - Kelly’s corivation theory predicts how you determine if a given behaviour is due to an individual’s personal disposition or the situation and circumstance - 3 variables are considered to determine if a behaviour is dispositional or situational o Consistency - Does this individual usually behave this way in this situation ,yes o Distinctiveness - Does the individual behave differently in different situations? (Problem with every computer then has trouble on his end, if he only has trouble with this particular computer thene it may be a problem specific to his machine o Consensus - Do others behave similarly in this situation, (do other people have trouble with Chris’ computer, or is it just him? IF everyone has trouble with his computer, it’s likely due to a problem specific on the computer The Fundamental Attribution Error - Often overestimated the role of disposition factors and underestimate the role of situational factors - Tendency to over-value dispositional factors for the observed behaviours of others while under=valuing situational factors - Interpretation of behaviours of others is guided by the fundamental attribution error - We are more likely to make fundamental errors for others than for our selves The actor/Observer Effect - The actor/observer effect is how you perceive your behaviour and that of others More vulnerable to making the fundamental attribution error when determining the causes of the behaviour of others rather than your own behaviour - When attributing the cause of your own behaviour you are Fundamental Attribution Error Assume Behaviour of others are primarily due to disposition factors Actor Observer Effect Consider the situational factors of your own behaviour Cultural Differences - Indian children have tendency to attribute behaviour to situational causes somewhat more than personal/disposition causes by the time they were 11 years old - Indian 15 year olds/ adults made more attributions to situational factors than to personal /dispositional factors - Compared to the Chinese, the American students and newspapers were more likely to make the fundamental attribution error - Generally, the fundamental attribution error is diminished in collectivist societies where there is less focus on relationships and roles within the society - Americans- increased probability of making fundamental attribution error ex)when they win the Olympics they talk about themselves and how hard they worked - Chinese- decreased probability of making fundamental attribution error ex) when they win the Olympics thank their coaches and families - People in collectivist societies are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error Self Serving Bias - Refers to your tendency to perceive yourself favourably o Above average effect- which causes you to identify dispositional causes for your successes, but situational causes for your failures giving you an exaggerated view of your abilities o Ex ) if you won a game of cards, you may identify personal strategy as a big contributor to your win, if you lost however you may focus more on the fact that you were dealt man bad hands Cognitive Heuristics - Social perceptions are shaped by similar heurists because we have limited ab
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