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PSYCH 1X03 (254)
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Influence of tohers.docx

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School
McMaster University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Norman Tiplet - cyclists compete faster when competing with a group then by themselves - Triplett hypothesized that the mere presence of others was an important variable in the performance of the actor - Co-actors are individuals performing the same task along with you, while the audience is a group of people observing performing a task - The presence of co-actors or an audience affected performance on a variety of tasks, a phenomenon termed social facilitation A complication - Social facilitation refers to an increase in performance and does not say anything about the interests of the audience , only that there is one - Therefore, sometimes presence of others lead to better performance and sometimes poorer performance like when doing maze, or solving complex math problems, learning nonsense syllables - Social facilitation does not lead to poorer performance on a given task if the audience is vested in the outcome Zajonc’s Resolution - Published journal science, “Social Facilitation: A solution is suggested for an old social psychological problem” - The important factor to consider is the presence of others increases your arousal - Presence of others increases arousal to improve performance on simple tasks, and decrease performance on complex tasks - For simple tasks, for which you are an expert or well practised performance is enhanced - For complex tasks, for which you are neither expert no well practised, performance is hindered - Imagine performing in front of others if you have been practising for weeks you will use the audiences energy to do better but if you’re not then the crowd would add to your anxiety - Zajonc's resolution states that an individual who is not well practiced at behaviour (amateur) will experience hindered performance in the presence of others compared to when alone. Conversely, an expert will experience enhanced performance in the presence of others. - It depends on your preparation, Social Learning Theory - Social Learning Theory : you learn appropriate behaviours by modeling and imitating the behaviours of others - Social Learning Theory Can help you understand how a complex cognitive skill such as language is acquired in children through explicit reinforcement - Popularized by Albert Bandura in the 1970s, social learning theory suggests that you learn appropriate behaviours by modeling and imitating the behaviours of others - When applied to social behaviours, social learning theory can be differentiated from basic conditioning because the behaviours you learn from others do not always require explicit reinforcement to develop Overjustification states that there is no conflict between attitude and behaviour. The Bobo Doll experiment, ex of social Learning Theory - A child seen an adult punching, yelling and kicking the bobo doll, so when the child had to play with it , it did the same , the aggressive behaviour was spontaneous with no explicit reinforcement or encouragement - Learning of a behaviour would only occur with explicit (open, clear) reinforcement (back up) - Did not show that children spontaneously learnt to act aggressively Conformity Sherif/Norm Function - Optimal illusion known as the auto kinetic effect: a stationary light in a pitch black room will appear to move about randomly , this is because when there is a dot of light against a dark background, you mistake the movement of the image on your retina as actual motion of the light - The presence of others will influence the individual reports of how much the light has supposedly moved, a several days of testing, your responses will gradually converge with the others despite the different starting points of the individual subjects which is an example of Norm formation - Norm formation is a powerful effect than can be further manipulated by the experiment - Hearing others laugh may convince you that the dialogue is that much funnier - An example of Norm function: is when you are allowed to adjust your response after antoher and your response becomes more like that of those around you - Normative Function: - The role of others in setting standards for our conduct based on a fear of rejection - It is present in fashion trends and popular culture - The normative function of the group sets these standards because you fear rejection or ostracism by others for not conforming - So the normative function, guides you to dress similarly to the rest of society and behave in certain ways because not doing so would lead to negative social consequences. This is particularly evident in the standards of acceptable elevator etiquette. Comparative Function: - The role of others in providing information about reality in an ambiguous situation - Situation which is unclear or your not sure what to do you , so you see what others are doing and how they are interpreting the situation - Comparative function allows us to compare our ideas against information and perceptions from others around us The Risky Shift:- James Stoner - Groups are more cautious than individuals - Group decisions were on average riskier than the mean decision of the individuals before the group - In some cases, the group’s decision was more cautious than the mean of the individual decisions - The important thing about the Risky Shift is that it suggests that groups are not always more risky than individuals, in certain situations the group will have a more reserved position than its individual members, such as when we looked at roger considering to take out his life insurance Group Polarization: - Group decision making strengthens the original inclinations of the individual group members - Group decision making is more complex, a new idea called, “group polarization” provides a better explanation of decision making processes in a group - Group polarization suggests that decision making in a group tends to lead to more extreme views by strengthening the original inclinations of the individual group members - This can move the group decion in either the risky or cautious extreme - In Helen’s case, the individual group members started with a risky position and when they got together their consensus was an even more risky position , and when they got together their consensus was an even more risky position - But in Roger’s case , the individual group members likely started without much risk and their consensus was pushed towards an even less risky position - Example: Cindy has been deciding whether or not to buy stocks in an up and coming company with her college tuition repayment savings, she is unsure of whether to follow through or not and on the advice of her family she goes ahead (an individual`s decision is strengthened by the group) - - Group decision making seems to enhance national pride, negative racial and financial attitudes and decision making in juries - When deliberating together, mock jury members will often decide on punitive damage awards that are either larger or smaller than the amount that any individual juror had favoured prior to deliberation - If most individuals had a large award group would lead to an even large award Groupthink - a group decision making environment that occurs when group cohesiveness becomes so strong it overrides realistic appraisals of reality and alternative opinions - Irving Janis has made the term groupthink , it is what you might call a mob mentality - groups falling victim to groupthink often believe that they are always right and that other groups are wrong - they fail to critically test, analyze and evaluate the ideas of the group - group decisions tend to be rationalized and pressure to conform is high - those who disagree are rejected from the group and they overestimate their might and right (EX MEAN GIRLS) - Recommendations for preventing groupthink that you should consider  be impartial  critical evaluation  devil`s advocate  subdivide the group  provide a second chance -Ways to avoid groupthink include assigning a devil's advocate, promoting impartiality in a leader, breaking up into small groups, having a 'second chance' meeting to discuss any doubts that remain, encouraging critical evaluation and ensuring people feel comfortable disagreeing. Kitty Genovese - 38 people witnessed but no one helped or called the police - For most, a reason for not intervening was the fear of personal injury, and when they looked out many people were watching and each assumed the police had already been called by someone
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