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PSYCH 1X03 (260)
Chapter 5

1X03 ch. 5 Part 2 notes.docx

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Christopher Teeter

Section 5: Introduction to Memory • Processes of memory: 1. Encoding – reflects data entry or how information initially enters into memory, a selective process that is highly dependent on attention 2. Storage – concerns how the record of memory is maintained over time – record is not fixed and can be modified 3. Retrieval – act of recovering stored information – dependent on retrieval cues  Retrieval cues – A key piece of information that has the potential to activity and memory in full  Ex. smell of lilacs (the cue) makes me think of the time my grandmother and I picked flowers at her farm • Cues become integrated with the memory at the time of encoding – processes of encoding and retrieval are considered highly interconnected • Target Study: False Memories • Focuses on mechanisms of false memories, specifically how different types of details in a false narrative affect the likelihood of recalling false events • False narrative paradigm – the details about true events are collected from parents and individuals are guided to remember past events (2 true, 1 false)  Ability to implant false memories is quite strong – believability of events and effects of imagination play a strong role  Narratives are more likely to elicit the formation of false memories – individuals have to use imagination and reconstruction to picture the event – easier for false details to be used to fill in the gaps  Increased likelihood of self-relevant details in producing false memories in comparison to non-self-relevant details • Self-relevant information is better constructed and formed – more familiar with it and use it frequently • Self-relevant details are highly familiar and thus fluently processed – fluency may lead individuals to judge details as coming from true past events • Non-self-relevant details lack fluency and may even have the complete opposite effect – the more unfamiliar/bizarre details are, the less fluent they are in the less likely they are able to produce false memories  Hypothesis: using self-relevant details in a narrative would significantly increase susceptibility to false memories in comparison to just specific details  Results: participants that received narratives with self-relevant details had a greater amount of images and full memories of false events – subjective sense of recall was enhanced for self-relevant details – participants were more likely to be unable to tell which memory was false if they received self-relevant narratives  Memory and remembering is based strongly on processes of reconstruction  Easy for false memories to be implanted and believed to be true  Provides support for memory as a process rather than just information storage in different parts of the brain  Eyewitness testimonies, for example, we now know to be unreliable – additional evidence must be provided Section 6: Sensory and Short Term Memory • For decades, psychologists have thought of memory as the accumulated operations of three separate stores: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory • Multistore model of memory – provides simple way to conceptualize types of memory • Sensory Memory: Transient maintenance of perceptual and physical information from the very recent past • Dichotic listening paradigm – participants could recall physical (sensory) characteristics of unattended thing – sensory memory not limited by attention - fairly large capacity • All of your senses maintain a similar transient memory representation  Iconic memory for visual info is represented by the visual system  Echoic memory for auditory information is represented by the auditory system  Sensory representations are displaced or overwritten by a new incoming information from the same modality  Sperling (1960) – tested longevity of sensory memories by briefly(50 ms) and simultaneously presenting arrays of 3 rows of 3 numbers – Participants viewed the arrays to and then listened for a tone of high, medium, or low pitch to indicate which row to report • If the tone sounded immediately after the array was presented, participants were surprisingly accurate at reporting the numbers • If the tone sounded just 1 second later they recalled nothing, illustrating the extremely fast rate at which sensory memory decays • Short term(working) memory: • Only some of the sensory memory is selected for further processing – enters consciousness and is maintained in the short-term/working memory buffer • Thought to operate like RAM on a computer – selected info is held online for a short period of time but not necessarily stored permanently • If unrehearsed, selected info can be maintained for about 20sec. in short-term memory buffer • Peterson and Peterson (1959) tested participants’ memory for 3 consonants (ex. CHK) over varying lengths of time (3-18sec.) – to prevent participants from rehearsing during the delay, they’re asked to count backwards from a three digit number by threes or fours • When information is rehearsed (repeated over and over), it can be maintained for longer periods of time  Ex. phone number remembered better when you use it many times • A brief distraction can cause you to forget the number – short term memory is temporary and fragile and has a limited capacity • Miller (1956) – the ‘magic number’ of items that can be held in/processed by short-term memory is 7 +/- 2 • One way to increase the amount of information maintained in short term memory is by chunking  Chunking: process by which information is organized into sets of familiar groups or categories of items – increases capacity of short term memory • Working-memory model was introduced many years after the idea of a short term store had been proposed – an upgrade to original conceptualization of short term memory  Consist of three short term buffers:  1) phonological/articulatory loop – encapsulates the original notion of short term memory – maintains info that can be rehearsed verbally (ex. rehearsing the number of your favourite pizza place)  2) visuospatial sketchpad – new addition – temporarily represent and manipulate visual information (ex. trying to remember of mental map of how to get to your favorite pizza place)  3) episodic buffer – new addition – to draw on the other buffers as well as on other stored long-term memories – engage to win remembering specific past episodes (ex. thinking about the last time you ordered pizza from this place, you recall that they mixed up your order of pineapple for anchovies)  Central executive – coordinates and manipulates info that is temporarily maintained in the buffers – allows Working-memory to be more flexible and controlled than short term memory was originally conceived to be Section 7: Long-Term Memory • Long-term memories are thought to be stored permanently • Multistore model – info can be copied from short term to long term memory – transfer largely dependent on the rehearsal of that info • Another way to get info into long term memory is through elaborate encoding • Once in long term memory, new info is organized according to prior knowledge • Recall related info in clusters/groups even if that info was learned in a random order (ex. given a list of fruits and tools mixed together, you would probably recall all the fruits together and all the tools together) • Semantic networks depict this organization – represent concepts by nodes, and connections between concepts by lines connecting the nodes – concepts more closely related are more directly connected • Flow of info between short and long term stores is not unidirectional – info transferred from a stored state to a conscious state (long term to short term) also (like when remembering the past) • More likely to remember things that fit our expectations of what will occur in an environment – based on past experiences • Also expect certain things to be a part of an environment and we remember them as being there when they are not • Reflect schemas – mental frameworks for interpreting the world around us based
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