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PSYCH 1X03 (260)
Chapter 3

1X03 ch. 3 part 1 notes.docx

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Christopher Teeter

Bold = key term, underline = not a bolded key term but still important Introduction • Drug Tolerance: decreased effectiveness of a drug such as morphine over the course of repeated administration • Learning plays important role in development and maintenance of drug tolerance • Tolerance may be built up in a certain environment but if the same amount of the drug is administered in a different environment, the cues that evoke the compensation response are no longer there and body doesn’t activate compensatory mechanisms. Amount of drug administered that was good now may be too much for body to be able to compensate for (overdose) – can cause extreme physical harm or even death • Environmental stimuli: features of an environment that trigger a response • Environmental stimuli present when drug is administered become associated with that drug – become cues for drug dose and signal physiological responses that counteract drug effect (compensatory response) and lead to tolerance • Learning: relatively enduring change in the mechanisms of behaviour that occur doe to experience • 1. Mechanisms of Behaviour: when learning occurs, something changes in the processes and systems that produce behaviour  Change in mechanisms of behaviour not change in behaviour because behaviour can change for reasons other than learning (fatigue/motivational factors) and learning doesn’t always reflect a change in behaviour immediately  Latent Learning: learning that is not immediately exhibited in behaviour • Ex. rats in maze with no cheese look like they are wandering around/no evidence of learning. When cheese is introduced in a specific location, they can get there no problem as if they had been travelling the route for a while ‒ They were learning the layout of the maze the whole time but it wasn’t evident until they had a reason to travel through it/a correct route • 2. Learning Involves Change that is Relatively Enduring: learning should tend to be retained over time whether or not it is continually being expressed in behaviour  Changes in behaviour as a result of fatigue only last until subject is rested  Other hand - once you have learned to ride a bike, you will still be able to after not riding for a year • 3. Learning is a Process Based on Experience: behavioural changes/developments due to maturation are not considered learning – often independent of experience  Maturation: process of learning to cope and react in an emotionally appropriate way – part of growth and development • Associations: connecting 2 unrelated events/a cue with a particular event  Ex. hot pan and burned hand become associated through experience Section 1: Orienting Responses, Habituation, and Sensitization • Orienting Response: an automatic shift of attention toward new stimulus in environment/event • Habituation: a decrease in response to a stimulus/event as it is repeatedly presented without any consequence • Ex. Ted moves into new house in busy urban area, lots of loud traffic outside house – trouble falling asleep at night at first but begins to ignore these sounds and they don’t bother him after a while • Tactile Stimulation: physical feelings from things touching you • Ex. habituation – begin to adapt to this stimulation – first put on a watch, you notice pressure in that area but it fades away and the you don’t notice it anymore • Dishabituation: increase in responding that follows a change in the stimulus to which habituation has occurred • Ex. when you wear a hat you habituate to the feeling of it on your head so you notice immediately if it falls off/is taken off and must habituate to the feeling of not wearing one • Ex. in a forest, you habituate to sounds of birds chirping and would notice immediately if they all stopped – could indicate predator near by • Sensitization: increase in responding – focuses attention to stimuli that have relevance • Ex. during a suspenseful part in a story/movie, tension builds and a poke/loud noise can create a behavioural response that is measurable (ex. jumping up off the couch) • Habituation and sensitization forms of non-associative learning – modify an existing stimulus-response relationship rather than create a new one • Reflex: kind of process affected by habituation/sensitization – takes place independently of conscious experience of individual Section 2: Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning: type of learning that associates 2 unrelated events • Unconditional Stimulus (US): stimulus that elicits UR • Unconditional Response (UR): biologically determined reflex, can be elicited in absence of prior learning (unconditional upon prior learning) • Conditional Stimulus (CS): stimulus that elicits CR • Conditional Response (CR): response that emerges only after some learning has taken place (conditional upon experience/learning) • CS becomes associated with US if they are repeatedly presented together • Conditioning Trials: presenting CS and U
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