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PSYCH 1X03 (260)
Chapter 3

1X03 ch. 3 part 2 notes.docx

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Christopher Teeter

Section 6: Instrumental Conditioning • Instrumental Conditioning: a form of associative learning that involves forming new voluntary behaviours that direct goal-directed actions • Thorndike’s Law of Effect: a response followed by a satisfying effect is strengthened (likely to occur again in that situation) and a response followed by a unsatisfying effect is weakened (less likely to occur again in that situation • How strongly responses are “stamped out” or “in” is proportional to the consequences (good/bad) of the response • Association formed between stimulus and behavioural response • Subject’s behaviour directly causes consequences • Operant: the voluntary actions/behaviours that operate on the environment to produce change leading to a specific consequence • Instrumental conditioning also called Operant Conditioning • Reinforcer: ‘satisfying effect’ or ‘reward’ that followed a response – objective descriptor of behaviour – anything that increases the probability of a certain action happening again • Primary Reinforcers: have intrinsic value – food, water, mate, etc. • Secondary Reinforcers: come to be reinforcing through previous learning (ex. money – little intrinsic value on its own but valuable because of what we know it can be used for) • Operant Chamber: apparatus designed by Skinner for experimental study – special chamber with lever/mechanism by which animal could respond to produce a reinforcer (i.e. food pellet) • Cumulative Recorder: recorded response rate (i.e. # of times lever pressed over time) • As with CC, after extinction, response is not “unlearned” – response can show spontaneous recovery and faster acquisition • Discriminative Stimuli: signal to organism when a given response-reinforcer relationship is valid • Positive Discriminatory Stimulus (S+): indicates presence of reinforcer based on the response • S+ tells you what could happen if you produce the appropriate behaviour • CS+ tells you what will happen • Negative Discriminatory Response (S-): indicates absence of a reinforcer in order to fine tune behaviour in response to generalization • S- tells you that a response-reinforcer is not currently valid – no reward for that behaviour now • CS- tells you what will not happen Section 7: Reinforcers, Reinforcement and Punishment • Reinforcement: outcome that increases chance of a response occurring again • Positive Reinforcement: arrival of appetitive stimulus follows a response – more likely for that response to occur again (reward training)  Appetitive Stimulus: something that produces satisfaction when received  Ex. chocolate chip cookies/excused from chores for finishing homework • Negative Reinforcement: removal of aversive stimulus follows a response – more likely for that response to happen again (escape/avoidance training)  Aversive Stimulus: something unpleasant  Ex. opening an umbrella to avoid getting soaked by rain • Punishment: outcome that decreases chance of response occurring again (opposite to reinforcement/punishment training) • Positive Punishment: arrival of aversive stimulus follows a response – less likely for that response to occur again (typical meaning of punishment)  Ex. make fun of sister and have to do extra chores • Negative Punishment: response leads to removal of appetitive stimulus – less likely for response to occur again (omission training)  Ex. street racing leads to confiscation of car/lying leads to no TV for the day • Most effective when consequence is delivered immediately following target behaviour • Delay of Gratification: being able to wait to receive reinforcement – doesn’t have to happen every time and immediately (i.e. get paid every 2 weeks vs. every time a task is completed at work) • Shaping by Successive Approximations: method used to train organisms to do a complex behaviour by breaking it down into smaller steps/components and reinforcing acquisition of behaviour through each step • Ex. teaching a dolphin to jump through a hoop done in sta
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