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Chapter 14.3

PSYCH 1XX3 Chapter 14.3: PSYCH 1XX3 - Module 14.3 Notes (The Cognitive Model)

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

PSYCH 1XX3 Dr. Kim & Dr. Cadieux Module 14.4 – Psychological Disorders II (The Cognitive Model) o The theory of learned helplessness assumes that depressive symptoms result from a sense of helplessness about a situation in which the subject learns to withhold responding  Inspired from animal research  In phase 1, dogs were exposed to inescapable, mild electric shocks  At first, dogs would actively try to escape, but in time would give up and passively accept the circumstances  In phase 2, when the shocks were now avoidable, most of them continued to remain passive  Although intuitive, the behavioural model still has its shortcomings -- ie. Can all disorders be explained by reinforcement? i. Can you really say that someone who hears and responds to voices in their head has learned to behave that way? ii. Although behavioural treatment is often effective while inside the comfort of the therapists' office, it does not always transfer well to other environments iii. Criticized for treating people as simple, reflexive beings that just react to their environment, rather than having the ability to plan, remember, and predict things in their world  Some of these shortcomings are addressed by the cognitive model The Cognitive Model  The cognitive model focuses on maladaptive information processing, ie. negative interpretations of life events -- how you interpret a situation affects your response. o Ex. Some people enjoy public speaking, while others are so anxious about it that they are almost paralyzed in front of an audience  It isn't the audience that causes this anxiety, but rather the way the speak
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